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Logo of bmcvetresBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Veterinary Research
 
BMC Vet Res. 2012; 8: 9.
Published online Jan 26, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1746-6148-8-9
PMCID: PMC3307427
The occurrence of Chlamydia spp. in pigs with and without clinical disease
Stina Englund,1 Carl Hård af Segerstad,1 Frida Arnlund,2 Eva Westergren,1 and Magdalena Jacobsoncorresponding author3
1National Veterinary Institute, 751 89 Uppsala, Sweden
2Stavby-Väsby 86, 747 94 Alunda, Sweden
3Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7054, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Stina Englund: Stina.Englund/at/sva.se; Carl Hård af Segerstad: carl.hard/at/sva.se; Frida Arnlund: frida.arnlund/at/gmail.com; Eva Westergren: eva.westergren/at/sva.se; Magdalena Jacobson: Magdalena.Jacobson/at/kv.slu.se
Received September 16, 2011; Accepted January 26, 2012.
Abstract
Background
Within the genera Chlamydia, the development of refined diagnostic techniques has allowed the identification of four species that are capable of infecting pigs. The epidemiology, clinical, and zoonotic impacts of these species are however largely unknown. The study aimed to investigate the presence of Chlamydia spp. in the intestines of growing pigs and in conjunctival swabs from finisher pigs, and relate the findings to clinical signs.
Results
By histology, 20 of 48 pigs had intestinal lesions that may be consistent with chlamydial infection. By PCR, forty-six of the pigs were positive whereas two samples were inhibited. Sequencing of 19 DNA extracts identified these as Chlamydia suis. By immunohistochemistry, 32 of 44 samples were positive and a significant relationship was detected between macroscopically visible intestinal lesions and a high degree of infection. By real-time PCR, a significant difference was detected between pigs with and without conjunctivitis when a Ct value of 36 was employed but not when a Ct value of 38 was employed.
Conclusions
Chlamydia suis was demonstrated in most samples and overall, no correlation to clinical signs was detected. However, a correlation was noted between samples with a high degree of infection and the presence of clinical signs. It is possible, that the intensive pig production systems studied might predispose for the transmission and maintenance of the infection thus increasing the infectious load and the risk for disease in the pig.
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