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Resistance to activated protein C (APC) is the most prevalent inherited cause of venous thrombosis. The APC resistance phenotype is associated with a single point mutation in the factor V gene, changing Arg506 in the APC cleavage site to a Gln. We have investigated 50 Swedish families with inherited APC resistance for this mutation and found it to be present in 47 of them. Perfect cosegregation between a low APC ratio and the presence of mutation was seen in 40 families. In seven families, the co-segregation was not perfect as 12 out of 57 APC-resistant family members were found to lack the mutation. Moreover, in three families with APC resistance, the factor V gene mutation was not found, suggesting another still unidentified cause of inherited APC resistance. Of 308 investigated families members, 146 were normal, 144 heterozygotes, and 18 homozygotes for the factor V gene mutation and there were significant differences in thrombosis-free survival curves between these groups. By age 33 yr, 8% of normals, 20% of heterozygotes, and 40% of homozygotes had had manifestation of venous thrombosis.