Habit: Small tree of 9–12 m height, trunk about 50–60 cm in diameter.
Bark: Light green, 12–15 mm thick; reddish color inside, forming exudate on injuring, branchlets white tomentose.
Leaves: Broadly ovate, shiny dark green on the dorsal surface and light green colored on the ventral surface with numerous hairs, 20–25 cm × 15–18 cm, entire, obtuse or bluntly acuminate, somewhat surgose above and with numerous white crystolyths, 3–5 nerved from or from near the base, base often deeply cordate.
Petiole: 3.7-7.5 cm long. Leaf opposed or extra-axillary .
Figure 1 Photographs showing morphology of the plant Cordia macleodii Hook. (a) Whole plant, (b) bark, (c) arrangement of leaves, (d) branchlet, (e) a branch of tree, (f) Individual leaf, (g) individual leaf – ventral side, (h) petiole, (i) Branchlet with (more ...)
Flowers: Yellowish white in color, polygamous, subsessile, in dense paniculate terminal and axillary tomentose cymes; male flowers with a rudimentary ovary but without style or stigma.
Calyx: 8 mm long, obconic, densely tomentose, ribbed; lobes short, obtuse.
Corolla: Yellowish white in color, 1.6 cm long; lobes 8 by 2.5-3 mm, exceeding the tube, spathulate-oblong, obtuse, veined.[9
Stamens: Usually 6, exerted; filaments hairy at the base.
Anthers: Anthers of male flowers large, those of hermaphrodite flowers smaller.
Drupes: Subglobose, yellowish, somewhat tomentose, apiculate, seated on the broadly campanulate toothed or lobed, ribbed calyx.
- Filaments villous at base
- Fruiting calyx ribbed
TS of petiole
TS of petiole is urn shaped in outline. The lower region occupies the major portion of the section and is circular in outline, and the upper portion has a narrowly channeled groove in the middle and is laterally elevated on either side .
Figure 2 Plate 2 Photographs showing Transverse section of petiole (a) outline of transverse section of petiole (Magnification ×3.5) Epd- Epidermis Tr- Trichomes Clm- Collenchyma Tn- Tannin content Mdr- Medullary rays VB- Vascular bundle. (2) Central portion (more ...) Epidermis and trichomes
The TS of the petiole shows an outermost layer of epidermis with plenty of epidermal outgrowths consisting of both glandular and non-glandular trichomes .
Underneath the epidermis, there is a collenchymatous region interspaced with patches of chlorenchyma .
A large circular vascular bundle similar to that of a stem occupies the entire middle region. Two subsidiary vascular bundles are also found underneath the upper elevations. Patches of phloem can be seen on both outer and inner regions of the xylem and are bicollateral in arrangement, surrounded by a parenchymatous bundle sheath.
Both the upper subsidary vascular bundles are similar in arrangement and also with central pith and are bicollateral, surrounded by parenchymatous bundle sheaths .
The main vascular bundle consisting of both xylem and phloem is traversed by radially arranged medullary rays in between the vascular bundles. The center is occupied by pith .
Majority of the parenchyma cells are also filled with brownish/dark brownish and reddish brown contents. Prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are also found mostly embedded with brown contents.
Simple starch grains are also found in some of the parenchyma cells of the bundle sheath.
TS of the leaf through the midrib
T.S. of the leaf through the midrib is dorsiventral in outline.
The upper epidermis of the leaf is single layered. The cells are rectangular in shape with thick cuticle. The epidermal cells of the lower region of the lamina are comparatively smaller in size [Figure , ].
Transverse section of leaf through midrib
Plenty of epidermal trichomes consisting of both glandular and non-glandular types are found on both upper and lower epidermis. The non-glandular trichomes are unicellular and multicellular uniseriate with a bulbous base. The glandular trichomes are usually with a unicellular bulbous head. Some of the glandular trichomes are very large in size with multicellular heads and they have unicellular stalk [Figure , ].
The lower region of the midrib is circular in outline with a middle vascular bundle, and the upper region of the midrib shows a slight elevation at the middle. The tissues underneath the upper elevation are occupied by patches of collenchyma.
The mesophyll consists of upper radially elongated narrow palisade cells and lower stellate parenchymatous tissues with air spaces. The mesophyll is almost occupied by stellate parenchymatous tissues .
The vascular bundle of the midrib is slightly semilunar in outline and the phloem patches can be seen on both sides of the xylem and hence is bicollateral. The vascular bundle is surrounded by parenchymatous bundle sheath [Figure , ].
Underneath the both epidermis occupies 3–5 layers of collenchyma [Figure , ]. Brownish contents are also found in parenchyma cells of the bundle sheath.
Prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are also present in this region.
Epidermal cells of the leaf in surface view are wavy in outline and stomata are found mostly on the lower surface and only a few are seen on the upper surface of the lamina. The stomata are mostly ranunculaceous with a few being cruciferous (anisocytic and anomocytic).
In old leaves, it is very difficult to differentiate stomata because of the presence of covering trichomes. Stomata can be differentiated easily in young leaves.
The tests have been performed as per the guidelines of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.[11
] The results are shown in Tables and .
Physicochemical analysis of C. macleodii leaf
Qualitative tests of C. macleodii leaf
Test of fluorescence
The result is shown in .
Test of fluorescence of C. macleodii leaf