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Validation of a mouse model of CCl4-induced early-stage liver fibrosis. (A) The effect of CCl4 treatment on enzymatic activities of serum Alt and Ast. The vertical axis represents each enzymatic activity (U/I) plus the standard deviation (**p-value < 0.01, n = 3-4). (B) The effect of CCl4 treatment on mRNA levels of collagen-related genes. mRNA levels of ECM-related genes, such as αSma, Col1a2, and Timp1, were determined by qPCR. Cyclophilin was used as the normalization control. The vertical axes represent the relative mRNA quantity plus the standard deviation (**p-value < 0.01, n = 3-4). (C) Histological changes induced by CCl4 in mouse livers. Paraffin-fixed liver section stained with H&E, MT, and Sirius-red (original magnification ×400).