Two analyses were conducted: 1 on DDI recognition and 1 on management strategy. For scoring of DDI recognition analysis, students received credit for correctly identifying a potential DDI. For example, if a drug pair interacted, students received credit for any response that indicated an interaction including: “avoid combination,” “usually avoid combination,” or “take precautions.” A response of “not sure” or nonresponse to an item was scored as incorrect.
For the management strategy analysis, students received credit only if they selected the correct corresponding management strategy for the interacting pairs. If no interaction existed, credit was given only for the “no special precautions” response. A selection of “not sure” or a nonresponse to an item was scored as incorrect.
The distributions for the DDI recognition and management strategy analyses aggregated scores were skewed, so nonparametric Freidman tests were used to compare pretest and posttest scores for student groups (pharmacy, medical, and nurse practitioner). If Freidman test results were significant, post-hoc Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed to determine whether significant differences existed between the pretest and posttest assessment scores for student groups. A Kruskal-Wallis analysis was performed for both analyses to determine whether significant differences existed between the posttest scores. The alpha level was set at 0.05 a priori. SPSS was used for all analyses (PASW Statistics, Chicago, IL, Version 17.0). The University Institutional Review Board approved the project.
DDI knowledge assessment participation rates varied by student group; 61% (n = 73) participation for medical, 82% (n = 63) for pharmacy, and 100% (n = 29) for nurse practitioner students. Pharmacy and medical student nonparticipants were absent during the class period or elected not to complete the assessment. The participant mean age was 26.7 ± 6.6 years, 26.7 ± 4.3 years, and 37.7 ± 10.4 years for pharmacy, medical, and nurse practitioner students, respectively. Across all groups, more than 50% of the students were female; 93% of the nurse practitioner students were female.
The DDI recognition and management strategy scores for each group of students are shown in . For both DDI recognition and management strategy, significant differences were observed between pretest and posttest scores for all 3 groups (p < 0.001). In contrast, analyses indicated no significant difference between the groups’ posttest scores for DDI recognition (p = 0.81) or management strategy (p = 0.55).
Median Pretest and Posttest Scores for DDI Recognition and Management Strategy