Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of narLink to Publisher's site
Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 December 11; 9(23): 6221–6229.
PMCID: PMC327599

Mononucleotide and dinucleotide frequencies, and codon usage in poliovirion RNA.


The polio type 1 (Mahoney) RNA sequence (1) has been analyzed in terms of the distribution of its mononucleotides, dinucleotides and trinucleotides (codons). The distribution of adenosine in the sequence is nonuniform, being lower at the 5' end and higher at the 3' end. The dinucleotide CG is relatively rare and the dinucleotides UG and CA are relatively more common than expected. Codon usage is decidedly nonrandom. Codons containing CG are avoided and those ending in adenosine are favored. The asymmetric use of mononucleotides, dinucleotides and codons in polio RNA is unexplained at the present time although the lowered CG frequency may be the result of a DNA origin for polio RNA.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (616K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Kitamura N, Semler BL, Rothberg PG, Larsen GR, Adler CJ, Dorner AJ, Emini EA, Hanecak R, Lee JJ, van der Werf S, et al. Primary structure, gene organization and polypeptide expression of poliovirus RNA. Nature. 1981 Jun 18;291(5816):547–553. [PubMed]
  • Brown F, Newman J, Stott J, Porter A, Frisby D, Newton C, Carey N, Fellner P. Poly(C) in animal viral RNAs. Nature. 1974 Sep 27;251(5473):342–344. [PubMed]
  • Cumakov IM, Lipskaya GY, Agol VI. Comparative studies on the genomes of some picornaviruses: denaturation mapping of replicative form RNA and electron microscopy of heteroduplex RNA. Virology. 1979 Jan 30;92(2):259–270. [PubMed]
  • Bird AP. DNA methylation and the frequency of CpG in animal DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1980 Apr 11;8(7):1499–1504. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nussinov R. Eukaryotic dinucleotide preference rules and their implications for degenerate codon usage. J Mol Biol. 1981 Jun 15;149(1):125–131. [PubMed]
  • Miyata T, Yasunaga T. Rapidly evolving mouse alpha-globin-related pseudo gene and its evolutionary history. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Jan;78(1):450–453. [PubMed]
  • Grantham R, Gautier C, Gouy M, Jacobzone M, Mercier R. Codon catalog usage is a genome strategy modulated for gene expressivity. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Jan 10;9(1):r43–r74. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chavancy G, Chevallier A, Fournier A, Garel JP. Adaptation of iso-tRNA concentration to mRNA codon frequency in the eukaryote cell. Biochimie. 1979;61(1):71–78. [PubMed]
  • Rekosh D. Gene order of the poliovirus capsid proteins. J Virol. 1972 Mar;9(3):479–487. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hunt T, Hunter T, Munro A. Control of haemoglobin synthesis: rate of translation of the messenger RNA for the alpha and beta chains. J Mol Biol. 1969 Jul 14;43(1):123–133. [PubMed]
  • Trachsel H, Sonenberg N, Shatkin AJ, Rose JK, Leong K, Bergmann JE, Gordon J, Baltimore D. Purification of a factor that restores translation of vesicular stomatitis virus mRNA in extracts from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Feb;77(2):770–774. [PubMed]
  • Golini F, Thach SS, Birge CH, Safer B, Merrick WC, Thach RE. Competition between cellular and viral mRNAs in vitro is regulated by a messenger discriminatory initiation factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 Sep;73(9):3040–3044. [PubMed]
  • Grantham R. Viral, prokaryote and eukaryote genes contrasted by mRNA sequence indexes. FEBS Lett. 1978 Nov 1;95(1):1–11. [PubMed]
  • Porter AG, Barber C, Carey NH, Hallewell RA, Threlfall G, Emtage JS. Complete nucleotide sequence of an influenza virus haemagglutinin gene from cloned DNA. Nature. 1979 Nov 29;282(5738):471–477. [PubMed]

Articles from Nucleic Acids Research are provided here courtesy of Oxford University Press