presents characteristics of the study participants by sex. The average age was about 62 years for both men and women. Management and professional occupations were the most common for both men and women, followed by blue-collar jobs for men and sales/office jobs for women. Among men, 14.4% were current smokers; among women, 12.0%. The proportion of heavy smokers is higher for men than for women. Workplace ETS exposure was reported by more than half of the participants.
Participant characteristics. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), Exam 1 (2000–02).
describes the distribution of tobacco exposure characteristics across occupational groups. Among men, those in management/professional occupations were more likely to be never smokers than other occupational groups. Among women, the distribution of never smokers appeared opposite of men: blue-collar workers had the highest proportion of never smokers and management/professional workers the lowest. Workplace ETS exposure among men had a clear occupational gradient with managers and professionals having the lowest proportion of ETS exposure and blue-collar workers the highest. In contrast, workplace ETS exposure did not show an occupational gradient among women as it did among men: the proportion of ETS exposure was the lowest for the female service workers.
Distribution of tobacco-related exposures across categories of occupation: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), Exam 1 (2000–02).
also shows smoking intensity and lifetime tobacco consumption among current and former smokers. While the number of cigarettes per day for men did not differ across occupational groups, pack-years was higher for blue-collar workers than those in the management/professional occupations. Among women, blue-collar workers daily smoked less compared to those in management/professional and sales/office jobs. Pack-years was the lowest for female service workers.
shows odds ratios of never being a smoker by occupational groups. Occupation was significantly associated with being a never smoker among men before income and education were included in the model (Model 1). Compared to managers and professionals, men in other occupations were less likely to have never smoked. However, this association disappeared after further adjustment for income and education were made (Model 2). For women, occupation was not associated with never being a smoker. For both men and women, having been exposed to workplace ETS was a strong predictor for not being a never smoker.
Odds ratios of being a never smoker by occupation and workplace ETS exposure: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), Exam 1 (2000–02)
Occupation was also associated with ETS exposure in men (). Male blue-collar workers had higher odds of reporting the exposure than managers and professionals even after adjustments were made for income and education. For women, there was no occupational gradient in workplace ETS exposure. However, when the analyses were restricted to never smokers, stronger associations between occupation and ETS exposure were observed. After all covariates were adjusted for, male non-smokers in service and blue-collar jobs as well as female non-smokers in blue-collar jobs had significantly higher odds of reporting workplace ETS exposure.
Odds ratios of having been exposed to workplace ETS by occupation among all participants and among never smokers: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), Exam 1 (2000–02)
and (for men and women, respectively) show associations of occupation with being a former smoker (vs. current smoker) and with smoking intensity and lifetime cigarette consumption among current and former smokers. Compared to managers and professionals, men in service jobs and women in non-managerial/professional jobs had lower odds of being a former smoker, but these associations were reduced and no longer statistically significant after income and education were included in the model. Those who reported workplace ETS exposure had higher odds of being a former smoker among both men and women ( and ).
Associations of occupation with smoking cessation and with amount smoked among male ever smokers: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), Exam 1 (2000–02).
Associations of occupation with smoking cessation and with amount smoked among female ever smokers: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), Exam 1 (2000–02).
Male blue-collar workers had higher odds of smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day (vs. 10 cigarettes or less per day), even after income and education were controlled for. The strength of the association remained unchanged when workplace ETS was included in the model. Men who reported workplace ETS exposure had twice the odds of smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day (OR=2.07, 95% CI: 1.46, 2.95); for women the association was even stronger (OR=2.63, 95%CI: 1.71, 4.05). As for lifetime cigarette consumption, male sales/office and blue-collar workers had significantly higher odds of having smoked 20 or greater pack-years even after all covariates were included in the model. Workplace ETS exposure was also significantly associated with greater lifetime cigarette consumption. For women, occupation was not associated with lifetime cigarette consumption but workplace ETS was.