Transductional targeting through the modification of viral surface proteins. (a) Principle of redirecting viruses by the insertion of tumor-specific ligands into the viral coat, without modification of viral surface protein (upper part) no infection; (b) Schematic representation of a viral surface protein (represented by the grey-filled circle) on which tumor-binding peptides or antibodies are exposed. Ligands can be introduced at the N- or C-terminus of the protein or internally, provided that the correct folding of the viral protein and its accessibility for binding to the cell surface receptor are maintained; (c) Schematic representation of a viral surface protein on which a scaffold is exposed. The targeting ligand, examples of which are shown schematically, is then provided as a separate entity, binding on the one hand to the virion and on the other hand to the cell surface receptor of choice.
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