We thank all tuberculosis patients for participating in this study, the treating physicians for providing clinical information, and the Microbiology Laboratories for providing strains. We are indebted to the National TB Surveillance Registry at the Federal Office of Public Health, as well as to Christa Butz and Yvonne Bongni from the Bernese Lung Association.
This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant 324730-12544), the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (grant 588), the Federal Office of Public Health (grant 09.007368), and the National Center for Mycobacteria. L.F. and M.E. are supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (IeDEA Southern Africa; grant 5U01-AI069924-5), and S.G. is supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant R01-AI090928-01) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant PP00A-119205). E.C.B. was supported by the University of Zürich, the European Community (PAR, FP7-HEALTH-2009-241476), and the Federal Office of Public Health (National Center for Mycobacteria). The Swiss HIV Cohort Study is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant 33CS30-134277). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
There are no conflicts of interest to declare.
Central coordinating team members were Lukas Fenner and Matthias Egger (Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Bern, Switzerland), Sebastien Gagneux and Marcel Tanner (Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland), and Hansjakob Furrer (Inselspital Bern, Bern, Switzerland). The National Center for Mycobacteria member was Erik C. Böttger (Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland). Microbiology laboratory members were Reno Frei (Clinical Microbiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland), Thomas Bodmer (Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland), Beatrice Ninet and Jacques Schrenzel (Central Laboratory of Bacteriology, University Hospital Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland), Katia Jaton and Amalio Telenti (Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland), Hans Siegrist (ADMed Microbiology, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), Gaby E. Pfyffer (Department of Medical Microbiology, Luzerner Kantonsspital, Lucerne, Switzerland), Thomas Bruderer (Centre for Laboratory Medicine, St.Gallen, Switzerland), Marisa Dolina (Cantonal Institute of Microbiology, Medical Bacteriology, Bellinzona, Switzerland), and Olivier Dubuis (Viollier AG Switzerland, Allschwil, Switzerland). Respiratory clinic members were Jean-Paul Janssens (University Hospital of Geneva) and Jesica Mazza Stalder (University Hospital of Lausanne). Federal Office of Public Health members were Peter Helbling and Ekkehardt Altpeter (Division of Communicable Diseases). The Union member was Hans L. Rieder (Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zürich, and The Union, Paris, France). The members of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study were J. Barth, M. Battegay (University Hospital Basel), E. Bernasconi (St. Gallen), J. Böni, H. C. Bucher, C. Burton-Jeangros, A. Calmy (University Hospital of Geneva), M. Cavassini (University Hospital of Lausanne), C. Cellerai, M. Egger, L. Elzi, J. Fehr (University Hospital of Zurich), J. Fellay, M. Flepp, P. Francioli (president of the SHCS), H. Furrer (Inselspital Bern; chairman of the Clinical and Laboratory Committee), C. A. Fux, M. Gorgievski, H. Günthard (chairman of the Scientific Board), D. Haerry (deputy of Positive Council), B. Hasse, B. Hirschel (University Hospital of Geneva), H. H. Hirsch, B. Hirschel, M. Hoffmann (St. Gallen), I. Hösli, C. Kahlert, L. Kaiser, O. Keiser, C. Kind, T. Klimkait, H. Kovari, B. Ledergerber, A. P. Lugano (St. Gallen), G. Martinetti, B. Martinez de Tejada, K. Metzner, N. Müller, D. Nadal, G. Pantaleo, A. Rauch, S. Regenass, M. Rickenbach (head of the Data Center), C. Rudin (chairman of the Mother & Child Substudy), P. Schmid, D. Schultze, F. Schöni-Affolter, J. Schüpbach, R. Speck, P. Taffé, P. Tarr, A. Telenti, A. Trkola, P. Vernazza, R. Weber, and S. Yerly.