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Adv Virol. 2012; 2012: 702839.
Published online Dec 11, 2011. doi:  10.1155/2012/702839
PMCID: PMC3263705
Deciphering the Multifaceted Relationship between Oncolytic Viruses and Natural Killer Cells
Christopher A. Alvarez-Breckenridge, 1, 2 Jianhua Yu, 3 Balveen Kaur, 2, 3 Michael A. Caligiuri, 3 and E. Antonio Chiocca 2, 3 *
1Medical Scientist Training Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
2Dardinger Laboratory for Neuro-Oncology and Neurosciences, Department of Neurological Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
3The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Wiseman Hall, 400 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*E. Antonio Chiocca: ea.chiocca/at/
Academic Editor: Ulrich M. Lauer
Received June 28, 2011; Accepted September 14, 2011.
Despite active research in virotherapy, this apparently safe modality has not achieved widespread success. The immune response to viral infection appears to be an essential factor that determines the efficacy of oncolytic viral therapy. The challenge is determining whether the viral-elicited immune response is a hindrance or a tool for viral treatment. NK cells are a key component of innate immunity that mediates antiviral immunity while also coordinating tumor clearance. Various reports have suggested that the NK response to oncolytic viral therapy is a critical factor in premature viral clearance while also mediating downstream antitumor immunity. As a result, particular attention should be given to the NK cell response to various oncolytic viral vectors and how their antiviral properties can be suppressed while maintaining tumor clearance. In this review we discuss the current literature on the NK response to oncolytic viral infection and how future studies clarify this intricate response.
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