Over 30 months 176 subjects were inducted on bup/nx and eligible for follow-up. 33% were female; 73% Caucasian, 21% Black, and 5% Hispanic, consistent with the overall racial characteristics of opioid-dependent patients in the region. 110 of 176 (63%) completed the follow-up telephone interview at least 18 months post-induction. contains basic pre-induction demographic, drug use history, medical, legal, and psychosocial data. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristic variables between subjects who completed the telephone interview and those who did not except that non-completers were more likely to have an arrest history (
Demographic, drug use, and other intake variables shown for subjects initially enrolled in the study and the subset of those individuals available for follow-up.
presents data on the 110 follow-up patients regarding continuous bup/nx therapy, substance use, AA affiliation, employment, psychosocial functioning and several other demographic, socioeconomic, medical and legal variables. The majority of patients completing phone follow-up were Caucasian (73%), male (67%), and had a significant other (58%). 52% of subjects were low SES, 48% were high SES, and 88% were heroin users with 74% reporting I.V. use. Depression (41%) and hepatitis C (34%) were the most common medical comorbidities and 39% reported prior psychiatric treatment. 61% of patients reported prior legal problems with 35% having been incarcerated.
Addiction related Intake and outcome variables by insurance status and continued bup/nx use at follow-up.
At follow-up, 77% of subjects reported that they had continuously remained on bup/nx. Patients on continuous bup/nx were significantly less likely to report using any substance (χ2 = 6.26, p = 0.012) and were less likely to report using heroin (χ2 = 8.1, p = 0.004). Continued bup/nx patients were significantly more likely to report AA affiliation (χ2 = 5.49, p = 0.019), including a “home group”, a “sponsor”, and attending 3+ 12-step meetings per week (χ2 = 4.72, p = 0.029). Those on bup/nx were significantly more likely to have been employed at baseline (χ2 = 4.92, p = 0.027) and at follow-up (χ2 = 4.89, p = 0.027).
Regarding psychosocial parameters, patients continuously on bup/nx were less likely to reported damaging a close relationship (χ2 = 6.07, p = 0.014), doing regretful or impulsive things (χ2 = 4.89, p = 0.027), hurting family (χ2 = 8.52, p = 0.004), experiencing negative personality changes (χ2 = 4.43, 0.035), failing to do things expected of them (χ2 = 9.54, p = 0.002), taking foolish risks (χ2 = 11.36, p = 0.0008), being unhappy (χ2 = 9.27, p = 0.002), and having money problems (χ2 = 5.97, p = 0.015). The study design did not allow these results to be controlled for opioid abstinence.
SES sub-group analysis indicated that high SES subjects were more likely to be from a minority background (χ2 = 6.82, p = 0.009) and were more likely to have a significant other (χ2 = 12.36, p = 0.0004). High SES subjects were more likely to be employed at baseline (χ2 = 4.84, p = 0.028), but not at follow-up. Low SES subjects were more likely to report still being on bup/nx at the time of follow-up. There was more substance use at follow-up in the low SES subjects (χ2 = 4.09, p = 0.0432).