We believe that two critical parameters for any batter and their baseball team is batting average and on base percentage 
. A player must be on base to score and hitting helps drive in runs. So we will examine those two parameters first. The University of Cincinnati baseball team had a substantial 0.034 point improvement in batting average from 2010 to 2011 where the opponents had a modest drop of 0.008. In and we present comparisons of the University of Cincinnati performance compared to our opponents in those games. In the to we present data for the Big East teams. The opponents from year to year are largely the same teams and the two teams play under simultaneous conditions, so using the opponents performance parameters while playing against the University of Cincinnati as a control (given similar number of games and game conditions) is being used here.
The US Air Force Academy introduced a similar visual enhancement training program for their baseball team in 1994. The team batting average increased from 0.319 in 1993 to 0.360 in 1994 and they lead the nation in hitting. The team slugging percentage also increased from 0.487 to 0.623 as home runs increased from 32 to 76. These improvements were accomplished with 18 of 21 players returning from the 1993 season [Dr. Michael F. Zupan; personal communication and 
. It thus appears that other teams when instituting a vision training regimen have seen similar improvement in batting parameters.
The improvement in the batting average is therefore striking because we assume that the main training difference is the addition of vision training 
. Several of the vision training activities may be quite relevant to improved batting average. First, the Dynavision is a training tool for improving eye-hand coordination and the speed of that coordination 
. Second, the near far drill assists in the ability of the eyes to focus from a distance; like the pitcher's hand to close in; the ball at the plate. The rotary training may also help the batting average because it provides a mechanism of training the eyes to track a moving object. Better tracking a moving object like the ball in the pitcher's hand or as it arcs to the plate will improve making contact with the ball.
Strobe training assists the brain in visualizing where the ball is going and the ball's rate. The brain is able to process the information the eye sends to it faster, and in that process when the Strobes training is discontinued, the ball's motion appears slower. This is an adaptation response of the brain and the duration with which the adaption remains is yet to be determined.
The slugging percentage for the University of Cincinnati improved with vision training. Strikingly there was a fall in the slugging percentage for the University's opponents. When one compares the batting averages for all the other Big East Teams all the teams had a fall in the team batting average from 2010 to 2011. The University of Cincinnati was the only team of the 12 Big East teams to show any improvement in batting average and that increase was 0.034.
For the 2011 season the NCAA instituted a new standard for bats to make the aluminum bats behave more like wood bats. This change appeared to adversely affect the batting averages of teams in the Big East, whereas there was an improvement in most batting parameters for the University of Cincinnati. Interestingly in the year the new bats were initiated the University of Cincinnati baseball team recorded its first shutoutless season in 15 years. Consistent scoring by the offense is, we believe, indicative of a strong batting foundation for the team's batters.
Many experienced vision training practitioners will recognize that a host of additional training modalities could be employed. Things like I-span, ball numbering, and others can be added to a training regimen. We chose our drills for training batters based on the skills needed by the batters, the time needed/allotted for training and the resources available. Our choices of vision training modalities were also, in part, based on discussions with Dr. Zupan and Al Wile of the Air Force Acadamy.
Future work with batters and hitting with vision training could investigate the dose response for vision training benefits as well as evaluation of other drills that could be used 
. At this time our philosophy is that vision training for improved batting performance can be done in many ways. What is reported here is simply a reflection of the apparent effectiveness of the vision training employed at the University of Cincinnati. Further, coaches and athletic trainers will be able to make adjustments to the program used by the University of Cincinnati to be more intense should players need it or shorter in duration as schedules dictate.
The training was designed to improve various ocular motor parameters. The muscles in the eyes can be trained and conditioned to perform better and faster in focusing and tracking objects such as baseballs. During the preseason training sessions it was common for athletes to report delayed onset muscle soreness in the eyes. This sensation was transient and is consistent with muscle conditioning that diminished with training as the season progressed.
Baseball batters have about 0.17 seconds to decide to hit a pitch and choose where to swing etc. The time it takes the pitch to cross the plate is about 0.4 seconds. This is a complicated spatial and geometric decision on a tight time frame 
. The average batter can expect to have only 1 or 2 pitches that are truly hittable in any at bat. So choosing that pitch is paramount for their success. Spotting the pitchers hand position on the ball, the velocity and type of pitch needs to be achieved rapidly and with great fidelity. “I can still remember my Dad saying, watch the ball pass the Pitcher ear” [Johnny Bench; Personal communication]. Watching the ball before the pitcher's release can buy time and information for the batter 
. This is an important snapshot of information from the pitcher available to the hitter and with vision training the benefit of that information can be improved and better utilized.
How does so much vision and processing happen within that short 0.4 second time frame? The eyes account for 80% of the information taken into the brain. Having good vision and training that vision to be proficient may provide the batter with a competitive edge 
. It is estimated that the average visual acuity of a professional baseball player is 20/12 whereas college players are of the order of 20/15 
. Wade Boggs talked about having 20/10 vision [http://www.nytimes.com/1996/04/21/sports/baseball-puckett-facing-life-outside-baseball-keeps-fighting.html?pagewanted=4
]. He went on to imply that as his vision degraded with age to 20/20 he wanted it corrected back to 20/10. This reinforces the importance of good and proficient vision for performance 
. We know that 20/20 is “normal” or what physicians tend to strive for with vision correction. Therefore most people who wear glasses are corrected to the 20/20 range. Factors can play a part in hitting as well such as background, lighting and audible distractions. The idea that vision can be improved to give you that millisecond advantage is what can be attained through vision correction and vision training, with the latter presented in the current manuscript.
We posit that the vision training program makes the batter able to spot ball and pitcher's finger position and thereby spot pitches better and earlier. The Tachistoscope training may help with the “snapshot” of information from the pitcher holding the ball and the rotary may help the batter follow the ball, but we firmly believe it is the synthesis of the training program that improved the whole team's batting abilities.
If you do not start with the basics of batting, there will be a lot of swinging and misses or foul balls, this is a form of vision training by trial and error. Joe Schultz in 1969 was talking about how hard batting was when he was quoted as saying, "Well, boys, it's a round ball and a round bat and you got to hit the ball square." It might seem simple to have a ball thrown to you in a lob and make effective contact on the swing. The real challenges begin when velocity is increased from various angles and then have movement of the ball brought into the equation. Movement of the ball in this case is changing the trajectory away from a traditional parabola; generally caused by spin and friction from the ball's laces during spin 
. Speeds change from pitch to pitch and within a few milliseconds you must identify; spin, speed and trajectory and then have the cognitive training go into action by sending appropriate signals to the nerves and muscles to perform a proficient swing.
We have trained athletes and personally tried these programs and are very aware of their benefits; along with the needs or deficiency of certain athletes' vision performance. The anticipated benefits of vision training are not exclusive to Baseball 
. We believe that Football players will be able to improve their reaction times, but this speculation will need to be validated. There are few sports that could not benefit from some form of vision training.
Concerning non-batting parameters the apparent increase in assists [as well as decreased errors] is something that may partially be attributable to improved visual motor coordination. An assist often requires a rapid and cohesive exchange of tracking ball into mitt and ball into hand for an effective throw. Improved eye-hand coordination may decrease fielding errors and dropped balls but also may help with assists as the action on the field may appear slower and easier to follow for the vision trained athlete who can then make plays better. It may be that with vision training the presentation of the ball into the mitt may be more proficient such that the exchange to the throw can be faster with fewer mistakes resulting in fewer recorded errors and increased assists. One may also speculate that these defensive parameters may be benefiting somewhat by the vision training because of improved self confidence as well as improved eye-hand coordination. This post hoc analysis is not conclusive, but suggests added benefits from vision training.
The University of Cincinnati baseball team, coaches and vision performance team have concluded that our vision training program had positive benefits in the offensive game including batting and may be providing improved play on defense as well. Vision training is becoming part of our pre-season and in season conditioning program as well as for warmups.