The funding agencies provided overall oversight for study conduct, but all data analyses and interpretation were independent of the funding agencies.
Data collected at participating sites of the NICHD NRN were transmitted to RTI International, the data-coordinating center (DCC) for the network, which stored, managed, and analyzed the data for this study. On behalf of the NRN, Dr Abhik Das (DCC principal investigator), Dr Marie Gantz, and Ms Sylvia Tan (DCC statisticians) had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and accuracy of the data analysis.
We are indebted to our medical and nursing colleagues and the infants and their parents who agreed to take part in this study. The following investigators, in addition to those listed as authors, participated in this study:
NRN Steering Committee Chairs: Alan Jobe, MD PhD, University of Cincinnati (2001–2006); Michael S. Caplan, MD, University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine (2006–2011). Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island (U10 HD27904)—William Oh, MD; Abbot R. Laptook, MD; Angelita M. Hensman, RN BSN; Theresa M. Leach, MEd CAES; Lucy Noel; Bonnie E. Stephens, MD; Dawn Andrews, RN MS; Kristen Angela, RN. Case Western Reserve University, Rainbow Babies & Children’s Hospital (U10 HD21364, M01 RR80)—Avroy A. Fanaroff, MD; Nancy S. Newman, BA RN; Harriet G. Friedman, MA; Bonnie S. Siner, RN. Cincinnati Children;s Hospital Medical Center, University Hospital, and Good Samaritan Hospital (U10 HD27853, M01 RR8084)—Kurt Schibler, MD; Edward F. Donovan, MD; Kimberly Yolton, PhD; Barbara Alexander, RN; Kate Bridges, MD; Teresa L. Gratton, PA; Cathy Grisby, BSN CCRC; Jody Hessling, RN; Holly L. Mincey, RN BSN. Duke University School of Medicine, University Hospital, Alamance Regional Medical Center, and Durham Regional Hospital (U10 HD40492, M01 RR30)—C. Michael Cotten, MD MHS; Kathy J. Auten, MSHS; Kimberley A. Fisher, PhD FNP-BC IBCLC; Katherine A. Foy, RN; Sandra Grimes, RN BSN; Kathryn E. Gustafson, PhD; Melody B. Lohmeyer, RN MSN. Emory University, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Grady Memorial Hospital, and Emory University Hospital Midtown (U10 HD27851, UL1 RR25008, M01 RR39)—Yun F. Wang, MD; Ellen C. Hale, RN BS CCRC; Ann Blackwelder, RNC, MS; David P. Carlton, MD; Maureen Mulligan LaRossa, RN; Sheena Carter, PhD; Gloria Smikle, PNP MSN. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development—Stephanie Wilson Archer, MA. Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center (U10 HD53119, M01 RR54)—Ivan D. Frantz III, MD; Brenda L. MacKinnon, RNC; Ellen Nylen, RN BSN; Anne Furey, MPH; Cecelia Sibley, PT MHA; Ana Brussa, MS OTR/L. Indiana University, University Hospital, Methodist Hospital, Riley Hospital for Children, and Wishard Health Services (U10 HD27856, M01 RR750)—Brenda B. Poindexter, MD MS; James A. Lemons, MD; Ann B. Cook, MS; Faithe Hamer, BS; Dianne E. Herron, RN; Carolyn Lytle, MD MPH; Lucy C. Miller, RN BSN CCRC; Heike M. Minnich, PsyD HSPP; Cassandra L. Stahlke, BS; Leslie Dawn Wilson, BSN CCRC. RTI International (U10 HD36790)—W. Kenneth Poole, PhD; Dennis Wallace, PhD; Jeanette O’Donnell Auman, BS; Margaret Cunningham, BS; Marie Gantz, PhD; Amanda R. Irene, BS; Betty K. Hastings; Elizabeth M. McClure, MEd; Jamie E. Newman, PhD, MPH; Carolyn M. Petrie Huitema, MS; James W. Pickett II, BS; Scott E. Schaefer, MS; Kristin M. Zaterka-Baxter, RN BSN. Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (U10 HD27880, M01 RR70)—Krisa P. Van Meurs, MD; David K. Stevenson, MD; M. Bethany Ball, BS CCRC; Anne M. DeBattista, RN PNP; Alexis S. Davis, MD MS Epi; Jean G. Kohn, MD MPH; Barbara Bentley, PhD; Ginger K. Brudos, PhD; Renee P. Pyle, PhD. University of Alabama at Birmingham Health System and Children’s Hospital of Alabama (U10 HD34216, M01 RR32)—Waldemar A. Carlo, MD; Namasivayam Ambalavanan, MD; Monica V. Collins, RN BSN MaEd; Shirley S. Cosby, RN BSN; Fred J. Biasini, PhD; Kristen C. Johnston, MSN CRNP; Kathleen G. Nelson, MD; Cryshelle S. Patterson, PhD; Vivien A. Phillips, RN BSN; Richard V. Rector, PhD; Sally Whitley, MA OTR-L FAOTA. University of California—San Diego Medical Center and Sharp Mary Birch Hospital for Women and Newborns (U10 HD40461)—Neil N. Finer, MD; Maynard R. Rasmussen, MD; David Kaegi, MD; Kathy Arnell, RNC; Renee Bridge, RN; Clarence Demetrio, RN; Martha G. Fuller, RN MSN; Chris Henderson, RCP CRTT; Wade Rich, BSHS RRT. University of Iowa, Children’s Hospital (U10 HD53109, M01 RR59)—Edward F. Bell, MD; John A. Widness, MD; Karen J. Johnson, RN BSN; Diane L. Eastman, RN CPNP MA. University of Miami, Holtz Children’s Hospital (U10 HD21397)—Shahnaz Duara, MD; Ruth Everett-Thomas, RN MSN; Amy Mur Worth, RN MS; Maria Calejo, MS; Alexis N. Diaz, BA; Silvia M. Frade Eguaras; BA; Yamiley C. Gideon; BA; Sylvia Hiriart-Fajardo, MD; Ann Londono, MD; Elaine O. Mathews, RN; Alexandra Stroerger, BA. University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (U10 HD53089, M01 RR997)—Robin K. Ohls, MD; Conra Backstrom Lacy, RN. University of Rochester Medical Center and Golisano Children’s Hospital (U10 HD40521, M01 RR44, UL1 RR24160)—Dale L. Phelps, MD; Linda J. Reubens, RN CCRC; Erica Burnell, RN; Diane Hust, MS RN CS; Rosemary L. Jensen; Julie Babish Johnson, MSW; Emily Kushner, MA; Kelley Yost, PhD; Lauren Zwetsch, RN MS PNP; Joan Merzbach, LMSW. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Parkland Health & Hospital System, and Children’s Medical Center Dallas (U10 HD40689, M01 RR633)—Pablo J. Sánchez, MD; Charles R. Rosenfeld, MD; Walid A. Salhab, MD; Nancy A. Miller, RN; Alicia Guzman; Gaynelle Hensley, RN; Melissa H. Leps, RN; Roy J. Heyne, MD; Janet S. Morgan, RN; Lizette E. Torres, RN; Catherine Twell Boatman, MS CIMI; Sally S. Adams, MS RN CPNP; Elizabeth Heyne, PsyD PA-C; Linda A. Madden, RN CPNP. University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School and Children’s Memorial Hermann Hospital (U10 HD21373)—Kathleen A. Kennedy, MD MPH; Jon E. Tyson, MD MPH; Margarita Jiminez, MD MPH; Brenda H. Morris, MD; Saba Siddiki, MD; Esther G. Akpa, RN BSN; Nora I. Alaniz, BS; Susan Dieterich, PhD; Beverly Foley Harris, RN BSN; Charles Green, PhD; Anna E. Lis, RN BSN; Sarah Martin, RN BSN; Georgia E. McDavid, RN; Patti L. Pierce Tate, RCP; Margaret L. Poundstone, RN BSN; Stacey Reddoch, BA; Maegan C. Simmons, RN; Sharon L. Wright, MT (ASCP). Wake Forest University, Baptist Medical Center, Brenner Children’s Hospital, and Forsyth Medical Center (U10 HD40498, M01 RR7122)—T. Michael O’Shea, MD MPH; Nancy J. Peters, RN CCRP; Korinne Chiu, MA; Deborah Evans Allred, MA LPA; Donald J. Goldstein, PhD; Carroll Peterson, MA; Ellen L. Waldrep, MS; Lisa K. Washburn, MD; Barbara G. Jackson, RN, BSN. Wayne State University, Hutzel Women’s Hospital and Children’s Hospital of Michigan (U10 HD21385)—Rebecca Bara, RN BSN; Laura Goldston, MA. Yale University, Yale–New Haven Children’s Hospital (U10 HD27871, UL1 RR24139, MO1 RR125)—Patricia Gettner, RN; Monica Konstantino, RN BSN; JoAnn Poulsen, RN; Elaine Romano, MSN; Janet Taft, RN BSN; Joanne Williams, RN BSN.