The brain has a remarkable capacity for plasticity, which can be enhanced by appropriate stimulation. Growing evidence indicates that aspects of lifestyle encountered in our daily routine can determine the capacity of the brain to fight diseases and react to challenges. For example, now we know that certain types of dietary factors, such as omega-3 fatty acids and curcumin, can stimulate molecular systems that serve synaptic function, while diets rich in saturated fats do the opposite. In turn, exercise, using similar mechanisms as healthy diets, displays healing effects on the brain such as counteracting the mental decline associated with age (Hillman et al., 2008) and facilitating functional recovery resulting from brain injury and disease (Griesbach et al., 2004). Diet and exercise are two noninvasive approaches that can be used to enhance neural repair (Chytrova et al., 2009). Omega 3 fatty acids and curcumin elevate levels of molecules important for synaptic plasticity such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), thus benefiting normal brain function and recovery events following brain insults. BDNF is a neurotrophin that, in addition to regulate the survival, growth, and differentiation of neurons during development (Zuccato and Cattaneo, 2009), stimulates synaptic and cognitive plasticity in the adult brain (Nagappan and Lu, 2005). BDNF modulates the efficacy of synaptic transmission and hippocampal long-term potentiation (Nagappan and Lu, 2005), and learning and memory in animals (Lu et al., 2008) and humans (Egan et al., 2003). Recent findings that BDNF is associated with energy homeostasis are offering new possibilities to understand the action of diet and exercise on the brain, as diet and exercise are intimately related to energy metabolism. For example, recent evidence indicates that exercise-induced BDNF influences hippocampal synaptic plasticity by modulating cellular energy metabolism(Gomez-Pinilla et al., 2008).