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Tuberculous pseudoaneurysm of the aorta is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. We present the case of a 27-year-old woman who had a tuberculous pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. The patient underwent successful excision and primary repair of the lesion while under hypothermic circulatory arrest and partial femoral bypass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest patient to be successfully treated with surgery for a tuberculous pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease are reviewed, and the need to include tuberculous pseudoaneurysm in the differential diagnosis of chest lesions is emphasized.