The heritability of cell-specific gene regulation maintains that chromatin structures must be propagated across cell generations 
. The basic unit of chromatin packaging, the nucleosome, consists of 147 bp of DNA wrapped around an octamer of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Each histone is subject to several covalent posttranslational modifications, including acetylation and methylation. Because histone modifications influence several DNA-associated processes, including replication and transcription, these modifications can impact not only the integrity of the chromatin structure but also epigenetic inheritance 
. The H3-H4 tetramer of each nucleosome is the most stable component and contains consistent and functionally important histone methylation marks. Chromatin is categorized into two transcriptionally distinct regions: euchromatin and heterochromatin. Euchromatin is considered to be the transcriptionally active region. Methylation of lysines 4, 36 and 79 of histone H3 (H3-K4, K36 and K79, respectively) and acetylation of the N-terminal tails of all histones are abundant in the euchromatin in budding yeast 
. Heterochromatin, which is thought to be regions that are transcriptionally silent, is found at telomeres, the silent mating type loci (HML
a and HMRa
) and ribosomal DNA repeats in yeast. In contrast to euchromatin, heterochromatin at telomeres and the HM
loci exhibit hypomethylation and hypoacetylation. Furthermore, DNA elements called silencers recruit the Sir2/3/4 complex, which subsequently spreads along the chromosome for some distance to form higher-order chromatin structures that are characteristic of heterochromatin 
. Thus, the high-fidelity inheritance of epigenetic chromatin structures across cell generations is required for the correct duplication of histone modification patterns from the mother chromosome to the two daughter chromosomes. However, the molecular mechanism of inheritance of epigenetic chromatin structures remains to be determined.
During DNA replication, preexisting nucleosomes from the parental chromosomes are recycled and deposited onto the newly synthesized daughter DNA strands. Newly synthesized H3-H4 and H2A-H2B dimers are simultaneously deposited onto the chromosome to form new nucleosomes 
. The daughter chromatin consists of a random mixture of new and old histones in equal amounts, but the newly synthesized histones contain few posttranslational modifications, except for acetylation. The histone methylation modifications involved in epigenetic marking need to be introduced at particular positions within the daughter chromosome to produce an exact duplicate of its parent. A replication-dependent nucleosome partition pattern may promote faithful reproduction of histone modifications within the newly deposited nucleosomes. Therefore, much attention has been focused on the formation of new H3-H4 tetramers on chromatin fibers following the passage of the replication fork. Two models have been proposed for DNA replication-dependent nucleosome partitioning: a conservative distribution model and a semi-conservative distribution model 
. The conservative distribution model proposes that newly synthesized histone molecules form nucleosomes that are randomly inserted among preexisting parental nucleosomes, which has been supported by early studies 
. The semi-conservative distribution model proposes that a hybrid nucleosome that contains both newly synthesized and parental histone H3-H4 dimers is formed, which facilitates the transmission of epigenetic information within the basic nucleosome unit. In a human cell, the canonical H3.1 and most of the variant H3.3 are incorporated via the conservative distribution model 
. In a transcriptionally active gene region, H3.3-H4 tetramers are composed of new and old histones in human cells 
. In budding yeast, which encode a single isoform of H3, most of the H3-H4 tetramers incorporated into the chromatin fiber during replication are composed of new histone molecules; however, hybrid H3-H4 tetramers composed of new and old histone molecules are incorporated into transcriptionally active regions 
. Thus, depending on the histone variant and the chromatin region, a newly deposited nucleosome can be formed either via conservative distribution or a mechanism consistent with the semi-conservative model.
It is widely thought that histone modification patterns of newly deposited nucleosomes may be introduced based on the template of histone modifications present on the neighboring preexisting nucleosomes 
. However, if several newly deposited nucleosomes, formed exclusively of new histone molecules, are assembled sequentially on the chromatin, it is unclear how the histone modification patterns could be correctly copied onto new histone molecules that are potentially located far away from the preexisting nucleosomes. The molecular mechanism that duplicates histone modification patterns onto newly deposited nucleosomes that are composed exclusively of new histone molecules needs to be fully elucidated.
In this study, we show that the introduction of histone modifications into newly deposited nucleosomes depends upon the location of the nucleosome within the chromosome. The majority of newly deposited nucleosomes, which are distributed throughout the entire chromosome, are comprised of new histone H3-H4 tetramers. ChIP-on-chip analysis showed that replication-dependent deposition of new nucleosomes does not always occur in an alternating manner with old nucleosomes. Interestingly, the dimethylation of histone H3-K4 was introduced into these newly deposited nucleosomes, even though the neighboring preexisting nucleosomes harbored a mutation in histone H3 at the K4 site. Furthermore, if the Sir3 was depleted using the anchor-away technique during DNA replication, histone H3-K4 methylation occurred on newly deposited nucleosomes in heterochromatin near the telomere. Thus, a conservative distribution model better explains the inheritance of histone modifications because the location of histones within euchromatin or heterochromatin seems to determine the mechanism by which histone modifications arise.