Interstitial lung disease is a common manifestation of autoimmune myositis that confers significant morbidity and mortality. The vulnerability of the lung may offer insight into the etiology of this autoimmune disease. The frequency and patterns of lung injury vary based on the autoantibody. Antibodies against the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and melanoma differentiation-induced gene-5 are frequently associated with interstitial lung disease. Although the mechanisms underlying these associations have not been fully elucidated, emerging data highlight the importance of autoantigen expression and conformation in the target tissue (lung and muscle, in this case), as well as identifying relevant amplifying pathways (such as regeneration).