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Logo of bmcpsycBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Psychiatry
BMC Psychiatry. 2011; 11: 185.
Published online Nov 23, 2011. doi:  10.1186/1471-244X-11-185
PMCID: PMC3235965
REFOCUS Trial: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a pro-recovery intervention within community based mental health teams
Mike Slade,corresponding author1 Victoria Bird,1 Clair Le Boutillier,1 Julie Williams,1 Paul McCrone,1 and Mary Leamy1
1King's College London, Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Denmark Hill, London, SE5 8AF, UK
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Mike Slade: mike.slade/at/; Victoria Bird: victoria.bird/at/; Clair Le Boutillier: clair.le_boutillier/at/; Julie Williams: julie.williams/at/; Paul McCrone: paul.mccrone/at/; Mary Leamy: mary.leamy/at/
Received October 7, 2011; Accepted November 23, 2011.
There is a consensus about the importance of 'recovery' in mental health services, but the evidence base is limited.
A two centre, cluster randomised controlled trial. Participants are community-based mental health teams, and service users aged 18-65 years with a primary clinical diagnosis of psychosis. In relation to the REFOCUS Manual, which describes a 12-month, pro-recovery intervention based on the REFOCUS Model, the objectives are: (1) To establish the effectiveness of the intervention described in the REFOCUS Manual; (2) To validate the REFOCUS Model; (3) To establish and optimise trial parameters for the REFOCUS Manual; and (4) To understand the relationship between clinical outcomes and recovery outcomes. The hypothesis for the main study is that service users in the intervention arm will experience significantly greater increases in measures of personal recovery (as measured by the QPR) compared to service users receiving care from control teams. The hypothesis for the secondary study is that black service users in the intervention arm will experience significantly greater increases in measures of personal recovery (as measured by the QPR) and client satisfaction (as measured by the CSQ) compared to Black service users receiving care from control teams.
The intervention comprises treatment as usual plus two components: recovery-promoting relationships and working practices. The control condition is treatment as usual. The primary outcme is the Process of Recovery Questionnaire (QPR). Secondary outcomes are satisfaction, Goal setting - Personal Primary Outcome, hope, well-being, empowerment, and quality of life. Primary outcomes for the secondary study will be QPR and satisfaction. Cost data will be estimated, and clinical outcomes will also be reported (symptomatology, need, social disability, functioning).
29 teams (15 intervention and 14 control) will be randomised. Within each team, 15 services users will be randomly chosen, giving a total sample of 435 service users (225 in intervention and 210 in control). Power for the main study: 336 service users will give power to detect a medium effect size of 0.4 (alpha 0.05, power = 0.8) on both QPR sub-scales. Power for the secondary study: 89 participants will give power to detect an effect size of 0.67 on both QPR sub-scales and on CSQ. A range of approaches are used to minimise bias, although service users and clinicians cannot be blinded.
This cluster-RCT will evaluate a pro-recovery intervention in community mental health teams.
Trial registration
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