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Anesthesiol Res Pract. 2012; 2012: 546409.
Published online Dec 5, 2011. doi:  10.1155/2012/546409
PMCID: PMC3235423
New Formulations of Local Anaesthetics—Part I
Edward A. Shipton *
Department of Anaesthesia, University of Otago, Christchurch 8042, New Zealand
*Edward A. Shipton: shiptonea/at/xtra.co.nz
Academic Editor: James B. Eisenkraft
Received July 26, 2011; Revised September 14, 2011; Accepted September 14, 2011.
Abstract
Part 1 comments on the types of local anaesthetics (LAs); it provides a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of LAs, and their pharmacokinetics and toxicity. It reviews the newer LAs such as levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, and articaine, and examines the newer structurally different LAs. The addition of adjuvants such as adrenaline, bicarbonate, clonidine, and corticosteroids is explored. Comment is made on the delivery of topical LAs via bioadhesive plasters and gels and controlled-release local anaesthetic matrices. Encapulation matrices such as liposomes, microemulsions, microspheres and nanospheres, hydrogels and liquid polymers are discussed as well. New innovations pertaining to LA formulations have indeed led to prolonged action and to novel delivery approaches.
Articles from Anesthesiology Research and Practice are provided here courtesy of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation