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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
 
Pediatr Blood Cancer. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 July 15.
Published in final edited form as:
PMCID: PMC3223269
NIHMSID: NIHMS314910

A Revision of the Intensity of Treatment Rating Scale: Classifying the Intensity of Pediatric Cancer Treatment

Anne E. Kazak, Ph.D., ABPP,1,2 Matthew C. Hocking, Ph.D.,1 Richard F. Ittenbach, Ph.D.,3,4 Anna T. Meadows, M.D.,1,2 Wendy Hobbie, MSN, PNP-BC, FAAN,1,5 Branlyn Werba DeRosa, Ph.D.,1 Ann Leahey, M.D.,1 Leslie Kersun, M.D.,1,2 and Anne Reilly, M.D.1,2

Abstract

BACKGROUND

We previously developed a reliable and valid method for classifying the intensity of pediatric cancer treatment. The Intensity of Treatment Rating Scale (ITR-2.0) [1] classifies treatments into four operationally defined levels of intensity and is completed by pediatric oncology specialists based on diagnosis, stage, and treatment data from the medical record. Experience with the ITR-2.0 and recent changes in treatment protocols indicated the need for a minor revision and revalidation.

METHODS

Five criterion raters reviewed the prior items, independently proposing additions and/or changes in the classification of diseases/treatments. Subsequent to a group discussion of the proposed changes, a revised 43 item ITR was evaluated. Pediatric oncologists (n = 47) completed a two-part online questionnaire. Validity of the classifications was determined by the oncologists classifying each disease/treatment into one of the four levels of intensity. Inter-rater reliability was calculated by having each oncologist classify the treatments of 12 sample patients using the new version which we call the ITR-3.

RESULTS

Agreement between median ratings of the 43 items for the pediatric oncologists and the criterion raters was high (r = 0.88). The median of the raters was either identical (81%) with the criterion ratings or discrepant by one level. Inter-rater reliability was very high when using the ITR-3 to classify 12 sample patients, with a median agreement of 0.90 and an intraclass correlation coefficient (rICC = 0.86).

CONCLUSIONS

With these minor modifications and updates, the ITR-3 remains a reliable and valid method for classifying pediatric oncology treatment protocols.

Keywords: pediatric oncology, measurement, treatment intensity, rating

INTRODUCTION

Current pediatric cancer treatments vary widely in their intensity, and are dependent upon the disease, stage, risk group and whether the disease is an initial diagnosis or relapse. While most clinical outcome studies in pediatric cancer are highly specific to a disease and treatment protocol, research on psychosocial and quality of life outcomes often necessitates the inclusion of patients with a wider range of diagnoses and treatments. The ability to classify the intensity of cancer treatments allows for comparisons across diagnostic groups.

Treatment intensity may be measured subjectively, from the perspective of the patient or family, or more objectively by healthcare providers based on medical data. From the family’s perspective, treatment intensity is important, given its potential impact on quality of life and the related demands on the family. However, patient-reported appraisals of intensity can be highly individual and do not necessarily correspond to the more objective perspective of oncology specialists. In response to the need for a psychometrically reliable and valid means of classifying pediatric cancer treatment, we developed the Intensity of Treatment Rating Scale (ITR-2.0) [1]. Oncologists reviewed data abstracted from the medical record, Children’s Oncology Group (COG) treatment protocol, disease stage and treatment modalities, and rated a patient’s treatment using a four point scale, from least intensive to most intensive. There are specific criteria for each of the four levels. The classifications were validated by criterion raters at several pediatric oncology programs across the United States and showed very high levels of agreement (Median r = 0.95). Inter-rater reliability for the initial scale was 0.87. Inter-rater reliability in subsequent independent studies has been very strong (r = 0.89 to 0.96) across independent studies [26].

Treatment intensity ratings need updating periodically due to changes in treatment approaches and protocols [1]. Based on recent experience with the ITR-2.0 and observations that some diseases and treatments may not be optimally classified, we present a revision that reflects more contemporary treatments, using methods that paralleled the original scale development[1].

METHODS

Scale Revision

The Intensity of Treatment Rating scale (ITR-2.0) [1] is used to categorize the intensity of pediatric cancer treatment from least through most intensive based on treatment modality and stage/risk level for the patient. The ITR consists of two components: Intensity Levels and Content Items. Intensity Levels refers to the four categories of treatment intensity, from Level 1(minimally intensive) to Level 4 (most intensive). Content Items consisted of 34 different disease and/or treatment modalities, with each modality classified according to one of the four intensity levels. For example, Level 4 was most intensive and included treatments such as bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

In order to update the ITR-2.0 items and their classification to reflect current pediatric cancer protocols, a detailed review of its items was completed by clinical experts (criterion raters). A pediatric oncologist (AR) reviewed the existing classification of diseases and treatments and proposed changes to clarify, organize, and determine applicability to current cancer therapies. These changes were independently reviewed by two other pediatric oncologists (LK, AL). The first pediatric oncologist (AR) reviewed and accepted or clarified these changes. A fourth pediatric oncologist (ATM) and a pediatric oncology nurse practitioner (WH) then provided additional clinical expert review on this version. A meeting of all five criterion reviewers was then convened to discuss nuances of the proposed changes and to finalize the revision.

Throughout this process, 23 items remained identical, 11 were added, 2 were removed, and changes were made to 9. Of the 11 new items, 2 were intended to capture low occurrence tumors not otherwise represented (e.g, “Tumor, other – 2 or 3 treatment modalities”). The 11 new items included 1 item in Level 1 (LCH, surgery or steroid injection only), 3 items in Level 2 (Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis [LCH] with chemotherapy; Thyroid cancer; Tumor, other – either chemo or radiation alone) 5 items in Level 3 (Biphenotypic leukemia – treated like ALL; Carcinoma NOS – two or more treatment modalities; Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis [HLH], chemo alone; Soft tissue sarcoma – two or more treatment modalities; Wilms tumor [stages 3,4] – three treatment modalities; Tumor, other – 2 or 3 treatment modalities, and 2 items in Level 4 (Biphenotypic leukemia – treated like AML; Brain tumor – with HSCT). Modifications for clarity and specificity were made to 9 items. One item was changed to a lower level of intensity (Chronic Myeloid Leukemia – Chemotherapy Only). The criterion raters agreed that this set of 43 items was inclusive of most pediatric oncology diagnoses (Supplemental Table I).

Scale Validation

To validate the classification of treatments into four levels of intensity, pediatric oncologists were chosen at random from CHOP (n = 23) and from a roster of oncologists at other U.S. pediatric oncology centers (n = 24). Oncologists were recruited by email and asked to assist with a validation study of a new version of the ITR. The final sample represented 22 hospitals in 17 states across the United States. 1 Data from all 47 oncologists were used for analysis.2

This study was granted an exemption from the Committees for the Protection of Human Subjects at CHOP. Participants completed an online survey which first defined treatment intensity as “an over-arching evaluation that takes into account professionals’ perceptions of the duration of therapy, side effects profile, risk of complications, number of agents, and treatment modalities, predicted time in the hospital, and the extent to which treatments are outpatient.” The 43 disease/treatment items were presented in random order. The raters were instructed to rate independently each item by placing it into one of four levels of intensity: Level 1 (least intensive), Level 2 (moderately intensive), Level 3 (very intensive), or Level 4 (most intensive).

Inter-rater Reliability

The final step in this validation study was to determine the inter-rater reliability of the ITR when used to classify a patient’s treatment into one of four categories. Data from 12 sample patients, both on and off treatment, were selected to represent several (three) treatments at each of the four categories equally. At least one patient description at each level represented a typical or common presentation while a second was considered to be “atypical.” For example, in the moderately intensive level (Level 2), one patient example was included as a more common presentation or treatment (Yolk Sac Tumor, a standard regimen of cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin), as well as another judged to be less common (Anaplastic Large Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, treated with chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and prednisone). The reason for doing so was to reflect the variability that would typically be seen in the patient population. Using diagnosis, stage/type, chemotherapy doses, and whether or not the patient received radiation, each oncologist used the ITR to classify the treatment intensity for each of 12 patient examples.

Data Analytic Plan

Spearman-rho correlation coefficients were computed to estimate inter-rater agreement between the 47 oncology raters and the criterion ratings. Median ratings across raters were computed and then correlated with the criterion ratings to get an overall measure of association across all items collectively. Individual ratings were correlated with criterion ratings for each rater and then summarized to assess the range of agreement between the sets of oncologist raters and the criterion raters. Empirically derived confidence intervals were generated when group medians differed from criterion ratings, based on order statistics, normal distribution theory, and correction for continuity [7].

To evaluate how the updated ITR performed using actual case examples, inter-rater reliability estimates were generated for 12 patient cases using the same pool of raters. Two measures of association were obtained: Kendall’s Tau-b was used to estimate the relationship between each rater’s assessment and the set of 12 case ratings, and a two-way randomized, intraclass correlation coefficient estimated consistency across raters for the same set of 12 clinical cases. The intraclass coefficient (ICC) was estimated using the more stringent assumption of absolute agreement across all 46 raters due to the need for raters to evaluate the case examples in highly comparable ways as well as to account for any systematic differences in raters that might be present. Power and sample size estimates were computed at the design phase of the study and required a minimum of 42 respondents for the correlation phase of the study and 46 respondents for the ICC phase of the study. These calculations were based on an r = 0.90 (for the Spearman r, LL[lower limit] = 0.80), r = 0.80 (for the rICC, ω [distance limit] = 0.19), and an α= 0.99 for both analyses. Because the two phases of the study required different sample sizes to detect statistical significance, the sampling frame was predicated on the larger, more conservative sample size of 46 respondents. All analyses were conducted using SPSS v18 (IBM Corp., Somers, NY) and STATA v10.0 (STATACorp, College Station, TX) software.

RESULTS

Scale Validation

The agreement between the median ratings of the oncologists and the criterion ratings was high for the 43 items on the ITR-3 (r = 0.88, range 0.66 to 0.88). The median and the criterion ratings were identical for 35 of the 43 items (81%). For each of the eight items that was not identical, the median rating was one level below the criterion rating indicating that the raters considered the treatments associated with those diseases as less intense than the criterion rating. Additionally, five of the eight items that were not identical fell within the empirically derived 95% confidence interval. The criterion rating fell outside the empirically derived confidence interval for the following three diseases: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), chemo alone; Wilms Tumor (Stages 3, 4); and Relapsed Disease - Excluding Hodgkin Lymphoma or first relapse of Wilms Tumor. Of these items, only Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) represents a new item that was not in the previous version of the ITR.

The criterion raters met to review each of the eight items where the criterion rating differed from that of the raters. For the five items that were within the 95% derived confidence interval, it was decided to retain the criterion rating but to modify two of the items slightly for clarity. Specifically, Carcinoma NOS was changed to “Carcinoma NOS with two or more treatment modalities” and Soft Tissue Sarcoma unless surgery alone was changed to “Soft Tissue Sarcoma with two or more treatment modalities.” For the three ratings outside the confidence interval, the majority of participants (69, 71, 76%, respectively) picked the median rating for the item. Therefore, the criterion rating was in the clear minority and the classification of the item on the ITR-3 was changed to reflect the data. One additional change made was to change Wilms Tumor Stages 3,4 to Wilms Tumor Stages 3, 4 with three treatment modalities.

Inter-rater reliability

Examining inter-rater reliability of the oncologists’ ratings of the 12 patient examples using Kendall’s Tau-b revealed a high median level of agreement between the criterion rating and each oncologist (r = 0.90, range 0.66 to 1.0,). A second measure of inter-rater reliability based on the intraclass correlation coefficient also indicated a high level of agreement and reliability across all 46 raters, collectively (rICC = 0.86).

DISCUSSION

The Intensity of Treatment Rating Scale remains a psychometrically strong measure of intensity of treatment for pediatric oncology treatments. The revised ITR-3 shows psychometric properties consistent with the prior version. Even with a larger pool of raters in this study, oncologists classified the majority of treatments consistently with the criterion raters or within the confidence interval of the criterion ratings. The inter-rater reliabilities are very strong, again accounting for a larger sample of raters than in the prior version. In summary, we recommend this version (ITR-3) of the scale over the previous one. As with the earlier version, accuracy of retrieval of treatment information is essential in using the ITR-3. In our experience this step should be completed by an oncologist or nurse practitioner familiar with potential nuances in medical record data.

Prior attempts to classify treatment intensity are variable and generally dependent on the nature of the study. Measures of treatment intensity are incorporated in investigations specific to only one disease group [8] or to particular types of treatments, such as treatments directed at the central nervous system [9]. Reports from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) utilize detailed treatment information and individual treatment predictors (e.g., platinum compound dose) on outcomes of interest, such as auditory [10] or gastrointestinal complications [11], but do not use an overall rating of treatment intensity. A series of studies [1214] have used a forced-choice technique where oncologists rate protocols from least to most intense, however this procedure has not been as thoroughly evaluated empirically as the ITR-3 and is more prone to subjectivity. The ITR-3 fills this void in pediatric oncology research by providing a broad, validated measure of treatment intensity that can be used in studies with a variety of pediatric cancer diagnoses.

The previous version of the ITR has been used to characterize samples in terms of the cancer treatment received [2], to establish the comparability of groups in psychosocial intervention studies [4,15] and to compare a subscale with a full sample [16]. The ITR has also been used to assess the extent to which the treatment intensity relates to psychosocial and medical outcomes. For example, treatment intensity is positively related to survivor perceptions of late effects [17] and to psychological outcomes and beliefs about health in adolescent and young adult survivors [3]. Alternatively, in some studies treatment intensity as measured by the ITR-2.0 is not associated with psychosocial risk in families at diagnosis [5,15] or for risk for depression in adolescents with cancer[18]. Treatment intensity also did not contribute significantly to quality of life in adolescents with cancer [19]. These “negative” findings may also be important in further understanding how treatment related variables may contribute to psychosocial and quality of life outcomes.

Given consistent progress in clinical trials, modifications to treatment protocols, and advances in treatment-related side effects in children’s cancer, evaluation of the scale will be necessary at regular intervals in order to assure that the ratings reflect current therapies. The process of revising the ITR was an iterative process that highlighted some of the complexities and potential discrepancies, in how experts view the diseases and treatments, including some variability in the raters’ evaluations of the treatments. The ITR-3 is based on current treatment protocols in the United States. Although COG protocols are used widely around the world, there are some differences among standard treatments by country or region that warrant some caution in using the ITR-3 outside of North America. In conclusion, the ITR-3 is an easily used reliable and valid method for used rating for classifying the intensity of current treatment protocols in pediatric oncology.

Supplementary Material

Supp Table S1

Acknowledgments

Author Note: This research was supported by the National Cancer Institute (CA 106928). The authors thank the pediatric oncologists who participated in validating the scale.

Footnotes

1Oncologists were affiliated with 22 pediatric cancer programs across the United States that reflected variation in size and region.

Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center (Seattle, WA)

Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta (Atlanta, GA)

Children’s Hospital (Denver, CO)

Children’s Hospital (Oakland, CA)

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, PA)

Children’s Memorial Medical Center (Chicago, IL)

Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center (Cincinnati, OH)

City of Hope National Medical Center (Duarte, CA)

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Children’s Hosp (Boston, MA)

New York University School of Medicine (New York NY)

Rainbow Babies and Childrens Hospital (Cleveland, OH)

Rhode Island Hospital (Providence, RI)

Tufts University (Boston, MA)

Tulane University Hospital and Clinic (New Orleans, LA)

University of Alabama (Birmingham, AL)

University of Arkansas (Little Rock, AR)

University of Minnesota Cancer Center (Minneapolis, MN)

University of Nebraska Medical Center (Omaha, NE)

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (Dallas, TX)

Vanderbilt University (Nashville, TN)

Washington University Medical Center (St Louis, MO)

Yale University School of Medicine (New Haven, CT)

2Data was missing from one oncologist for the second part of the questionnaire (rating the 12 case examples).

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