1. Chiauzzi E, Green TC, Lord S, Thum C, Goldstein M. My student body: a high-risk drinking prevention web site for college students. J Am Coll Health. 2005;53(6):263–74. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 2. Strecher VJ, Shiffman S, West R. Randomized controlled trial of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program as a supplement to nicotine patch therapy. Addiction. 2005 May;100(5):682–8. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01093.x.ADD1093 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 6. Neuhauser L, Kreps G. Rethinking communication in the e-health era. Journal of Health Psychology. 2003;8(1):7–23. doi: 10.1177/1359105303008001426. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
7. Fogg BJ. Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann; 2003.
8. Webb TL, Joseph J, Yardley L, Michie S. Using the internet to promote health behavior change: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of theoretical basis, use of behavior change techniques, and mode of delivery on efficacy. J Med Internet Res. 2010;12(1):e4. doi: 10.2196/jmir.1376. http://www.jmir.org/2010/1/e4/v12i1e4 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 9. Portnoy DB, Scott-Sheldon LA, Johnson BT, Carey MP. Computer-delivered interventions for health promotion and behavioral risk reduction: a meta-analysis of 75 randomized controlled trials, 1988-2007. Prev Med. 2008 Jul;47(1):3–16. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.02.014.S0091-7435(08)00101-1 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 10. Wantland DJ, Portillo CJ, Holzemer WL, Slaughter R, McGhee EM. The effectiveness of Web-based vs. non-Web-based interventions: a meta-analysis of behavioral change outcomes. J Med Internet Res. 2004 Nov 10;6(4):e40. doi: 10.2196/jmir.6.4.e40. http://www.jmir.org/2004/4/e40/v6e40 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 11. Norman GJ, Zabinski MF, Adams MA, Rosenberg DE, Yaroch AL, Atienza AA. A review of eHealth interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change. Am J Prev Med. 2007 Oct;33(4):336–345. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2007.05.007.S0749-3797(07)00363-7 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 12. Vandelanotte C, Spathonis KM, Eakin EG, Owen N. Website-delivered physical activity interventions a review of the literature. Am J Prev Med. 2007 Jul;33(1):54–64. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2007.02.041.S0749-3797(07)00164-X [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
15. Ornish D, Smith A. The spectrum: a scientifically proven program to feel better, live longer, lose weight, and gain health. New York, NY: Ballantine Books; 2007.
16. Andreasen A. Marketing social marketing in the social change marketplace. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing. 2002;21(1):3–13.
17. Kotler P, Roberto N, Roberto N, Lee N. Social marketing: improving the quality of life. London, UK: SAGE; 2002.
18. Rothschild ML. Carrots, sticks, and promises: A conceptual framework for the management of public health and social issue behaviors. The Journal of Marketing. 1999;63:24–37.
22. Lefebvre C. The new technology: The consumer as participant rather than target audience. Social Marketing Quarterly. 2007;13(3):31–42.
23. Peattie S. The internet as a medium for communicating with teenagers. Social Marketing Quarterly. 2007;13(2):21–46.
24. Evers K, Prochaska JM, Prochaska JO, Driskell M, Cummins C, Velicer W. Strengths and weaknesses of health behavior change programs on the internet. Journal of Health Psychology. 2003;8(1):63–70. [PubMed] 25. Doshi A, Patrick K, Sallis JF, Calfas K. Evaluation of physical activity web sites for use of behavior change theories. Ann Behav Med. 2003;25(2):105–11. [PubMed] 26. Lin CA, Hullman GA. Tobacco-prevention messages online: social marketing via the Web. Health Commun. 2005;18(2):177–93. doi: 10.1207/s15327027hc1802_5. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
27. Conrad J, McCracken J, Phelan K. 'Own your c'-colorado's youth tobacco prevention and cessation campaign. Cases in Public Health Communication & Marketing. 2009;3:219–241.
28. Li J. Mobile phones and the internet as quitting smoking aids. Cases in Public Health Communication & Marketing. 2009;3:204–218.
29. Hoff T, Mishel M, Rowe I. Using new media to make HIV personal: A partnership of MTV and the Kaiser Family Foundation. Cases in Public Health Communication & Marketing. 2008;2:190–197.
30. Huhman M. New media and the verb campaign: Tools to motivate tweens to be physically active. Cases in Public Health Communication & Marketing. 2008;2:126–139.
31. Lustria ML, Cortese J, Noar SM, Glueckauf RL. Computer-tailored health interventions delivered over the Web: review and analysis of key components. Patient Educ Couns. 2009 Feb;74(2):156–73. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2008.08.023.S0738-3991(08)00469-2 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 33. An LC, Perry CL, Lein EB, Klatt C, Farley DM, Bliss RL, Hennrikus DJ, Pallonen UE, Lando HA, Ahluwalia JS, Ehlinger EP. Strategies for increasing adherence to an online smoking cessation intervention for college students. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Dec;8 Suppl 1:S7–12. [PubMed]
34. Cugelman B. Online Social Marketing: Website Factors in Behavioural Change [dissertation] Wolverhampton, UK: University of Wolverhampton; 2010.
35. Cugelman B, Thelwall M, Dawes P. Communication-based influence components model. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology; The 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology; April 26-29, 2009; Claremont, CA. New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery; 2009. [Cross Ref] 36. Cummins C, Prochaska JO, Driskell M, Evers K, Wright J, Prochaska JM, Velicer V. Development of Review Criteria to Evaluate Health Behavior Change Websites. Journal of Health Psychology. 2003;8(1):55. [PubMed] 37. Davidson KW, Goldstein M, Kaplan RM, Kaufmann PG, Knatterud GL, Orleans CT, Spring B, Trudeau KJ, Whitlock EP. Evidence-based behavioral medicine: what is it and how do we achieve it? Ann Behav Med. 2003 Dec;26(3):161–71. [PubMed] 38. Abraham C, Michie S. A taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychol. 2008 May;27(3):379–87. doi: 10.1037/0278-6188.8.131.529.2008-08834-010 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 39. Michie S, Johnston M, Francis J, Hardeman W, Eccles M. From theory to intervention: Mapping theoretically derived behavioural determinants to behaviour change. Applied Psychology. 2008;57(4):660–680. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00341.x. [Cross Ref] 40. Embry DD, Biglan A. Evidence-based kernels: fundamental units of behavioral influence. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2008 Sep;11(3):75–113. doi: 10.1007/s10567-008-0036-x. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
41. Reeves B, Nass C. The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information; 1996.
42. Oinas-Kukkonen H, Harjumaa M. Persuasive systems design: Key issues, process model, and system features. Communications of the Association for Information Systems. 2009;24:485–500.
43. Cialdini R. Influence: Science and Practice. 5th edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Education; 2009.
44. Ajzen I. Persuasive communication theory in social psychology: A historical perspective. In: Manfredo MJ, editor. Influencing Human Behavior: Theory and Applications in Recreation, Tourism and Natural Resources Management. Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing; 1992. pp. 1–16.
45. O'Keefe DJ. Persuasion: Theory and Research. 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2002.
46. Prochaska J, Norcross J. Stages of change. Psychotherapy. 2001;38(4):443–448.
47. Prochaska JO, Norcross JC, DiClemente C. Changing for Good: A Revolutionary Six-Stage Program for Overcoming Bad Habits and Moving Your Life Positively Forward. New York, NY: W Morrow; 1994.
48. McKenzie-Mohr D, Smith WA. Fostering Sustainable Behavior: An Introduction to Community-based Social Marketing. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers; 1999.
49. Kassirer J, McKenzie-Mohr D. Tools of Change: Proven Methods for Promoting Environmental Citizenship. Ottawa, ON: National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy; 1998.
51. Littell J, Corcoran J, Pillai V. Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (Pocket Guides to Social Work Research Methods) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2008.
52. Neve M, Morgan PJ, Jones PR, Collins CE. Effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss and weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2010 Apr;11(4):306–21. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00646.x.OBR646 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 53. Cullen KW, Thompson D. Feasibility of an 8-week African American web-based pilot program promoting healthy eating behaviors: Family Eats. Am J Health Behav. 2008;32(1):40–51. doi: 10.5555/ajhb.2008.32.1.40. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
54. Higgins J, Green S. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.0. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2008.
55. Patten CA, Croghan IT, Meis TM, Decker PA, Pingree S, Colligan RC, Dornelas EA, Offord KP, Boberg EW, Baumberger RK, Hurt RD, Gustafson DH. Randomized clinical trial of an Internet-based versus brief office intervention for adolescent smoking cessation. Patient Educ Couns. 2006 Dec;64(1-3):249–58. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2006.03.001.S0738-3991(06)00084-X [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
56. Borenstein M, Hedges L, Higgins J, Rothstein H. Introduction to Meta-Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2009.
58. Deeks JJ, Dinnes J, D'Amico R, Sowden AJ, Sakarovitch C, Song F, Petticrew M, Altman DG., International Stroke Trial Collaborative Group. European Carotid Surgery Trial Collaborative Group Evaluating non-randomised intervention studies. Health Technol Assess. 2003;7(27):iii–x, 1. http://www.hta.ac.uk/execsumm/summ727.htm.96-26-99 [PubMed] 59. Petersen R, Sill S, Lu C, Young J, Edington DW. Effectiveness of employee internet-based weight management program. J Occup Environ Med. 2008 Feb;50(2):163–71. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31815c6cf6.00043764-200802000-00009 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
61. Lipsey M, Wilson D. Practical Meta-Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc; 2001.
62. Bruning Brown J, Winzelberg AJ, Abascal LB, Taylor CB. An evaluation of an Internet-delivered eating disorder prevention program for adolescents and their parents. J Adolesc Health. 2004 Oct;35(4):290–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.10.010.S1054139X04000564 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 63. Bersamin M, Paschall MJ, Fearnow-Kenney M, Wyrick D. Effectiveness of a Web-based alcohol-misuse and harm-prevention course among high- and low-risk students. J Am Coll Health. 2007;55(4):247–54. [PubMed] 64. Bewick BM, Trusler K, Mulhern B, Barkham M, Hill AJ. The feasibility and effectiveness of a web-based personalised feedback and social norms alcohol intervention in UK university students: a randomised control trial. Addict Behav. 2008 Sep;33(9):1192–8. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.05.002.S0306-4603(08)00129-9 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 65. Celio AA, Winzelberg AJ, Wilfley DE, Eppstein-Herald D, Springer EA, Dev P, Taylor CB. Reducing risk factors for eating disorders: comparison of an Internet- and a classroom-delivered psychoeducational program. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000 Aug;68(4):650–7. [PubMed] 66. Dunton GF, Robertson TP. A tailored Internet-plus-email intervention for increasing physical activity among ethnically-diverse women. Prev Med. 2008 Dec;47(6):605–11. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.10.004.S0091-7435(08)00514-8 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 67. Guéguen N, Jacob C. Fund-raising on the web: the effect of an electronic foot-in-the-door on donation. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2001 Dec;4(6):705–9. [PubMed] 68. Hunter CM, Peterson AL, Alvarez LM, Poston WC, Brundige AR, Haddock CK, Van Brunt DL, Foreyt JP. Weight management using the internet a randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med. 2008 Feb;34(2):119–26. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2007.09.026.S0749-3797(07)00646-0 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 69. Jacobi C, Morris L, Beckers C, Bronisch-Holtze J, Winter J, Winzelberg AJ, Taylor CB. Maintenance of internet-based prevention: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Eat Disord. 2007 Mar;40(2):114–9. doi: 10.1002/eat.20344. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 70. Kim CJ, Kang DH. Utility of a Web-based intervention for individuals with type 2 diabetes: the impact on physical activity levels and glycemic control. Comput Inform Nurs. 2006;24(6):337–45.00024665-200611000-00008 [PubMed] 71. Kosma M, Cardinal BJ, McCubbin JA. A pilot study of a web-based physical activity motivational program for adults with physical disabilities. Disabil Rehabil. 2005 Dec 15;27(23):1435–42. doi: 10.1080/09638280500242713.L51X290818153558 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 72. Kypri K, Saunders JB, Williams SM, McGee RO, Langley JD, Cashell-Smith ML, Gallagher SJ. Web-based screening and brief intervention for hazardous drinking: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Addiction. 2004 Nov;99(11):1410–7. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00847.x.ADD847 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 73. Kypri K, McAnally HM. Randomized controlled trial of a web-based primary care intervention for multiple health risk behaviors. Prev Med. 2005;41(3-4):761–6. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.07.010.S0091-7435(05)00111-8 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 74. Lenert L, Muñoz RF, Perez JE, Bansod A. Automated e-mail messaging as a tool for improving quit rates in an internet smoking cessation intervention. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2004;11(4):235–40. doi: 10.1197/jamia.M1464.M1464 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 75. Marshall AL, Leslie ER, Bauman AE, Marcus BH, Owen N. Print versus website physical activity programs: a randomized trial. Am J Prev Med. 2003 Aug;25(2):88–94.S0749379703001119 [PubMed] 77. Moore MJ, Soderquist J, Werch C. Feasibility and efficacy of a binge drinking prevention intervention for college students delivered via the Internet versus postal mail. J Am Coll Health. 2005;54(1):38–44. [PubMed] 78. Napolitano MA, Fotheringham M, Tate D, Sciamanna C, Leslie E, Owen N, Bauman A, Marcus B. Evaluation of an internet-based physical activity intervention: a preliminary investigation. Ann Behav Med. 2003;25(2):92–9. [PubMed] 79. Oenema A, Tan F, Brug J. Short-term efficacy of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition intervention: main effects and mediators. Ann Behav Med. 2005 Feb;29(1):54–63. doi: 10.1207/s15324796abm2901_8. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 80. Roberto AJ, Zimmerman RS, Carlyle KE, Abner EL. A computer-based approach to preventing pregnancy, STD, and HIV in rural adolescents. J Health Commun. 2007;12(1):53–76. doi: 10.1080/10810730601096622.770174324 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 81. Severson HH, Gordon JS, Danaher BG, Akers L. ChewFree.com: evaluation of a Web-based cessation program for smokeless tobacco users. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Feb;10(2):381–91. doi: 10.1080/14622200701824984.790122824 [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 82. Ström L, Pettersson R, Andersson G. A controlled trial of self-help treatment of recurrent headache conducted via the Internet. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000 Aug;68(4):722–7. [PubMed] 85. Verheijden M, Bakx JC, Akkermans R, van den Hoogen H, Godwin NM, Rosser W, van Staveren W, van Weel C. Web-based targeted nutrition counselling and social support for patients at increased cardiovascular risk in general practice: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2004 Dec 16;6(4):e44. doi: 10.2196/jmir.6.4.e44. http://www.jmir.org/2004/4/e44/v6e44 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 86. Winett RA, Anderson ES, Wojcik JR, Winett SG, Bowden T. Guide to health: nutrition and physical activity outcomes of a group-randomized trial of an Internet-based intervention in churches. Ann Behav Med. 2007 Jun;33(3):251–61. doi: 10.1080/08836610701358045. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
87. Fogg BJ, Tseng H. The elements of computer credibility. CHI 99 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: the CHI is the Limit; CHI 99 SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems; May 15 - 20, 1999; Pittsburgh, PA. New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery; 1999.
88. Cugelman B, Thelwall M, Dawes P. The dimensions of web site credibility and their relation to active trust and behavioural impact. Communications of the Association for Information Systems. 2009;24:455–472.
90. Locke EA, Latham GP. Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year odyssey. Am Psychol. 2002 Sep;57(9):705–17. [PubMed]
91. Bandura A. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist. 1982;37(2):122–147.
92. Pintrich P, De Groot E. Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1990;82(1):33–40.
93. Fogg BJ. A behavior model for persuasive design. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology; The 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology; April 26-29, 2009; Claremont, CA. New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery; 2009. [Cross Ref] 94. Hughes JR, Keely J, Naud S. Shape of the relapse curve and long-term abstinence among untreated smokers. Addiction. 2004 Jan;99(1):29–38.540 [PubMed] 95. Svetkey LP, Stevens VJ, Brantley PJ, Appel LJ, Hollis JF, Loria CM, Vollmer WM, Gullion CM, Funk K, Smith P, Samuel-Hodge C, Myers V, Lien LF, Laferriere D, Kennedy B, Jerome GJ, Heinith F, Harsha DW, Evans P, Erlinger TP, Dalcin AT, Coughlin J, Charleston J, Champagne CM, Bauck A, Ard JD, Aicher K., Weight Loss Maintenance Collaborative Research Group Comparison of strategies for sustaining weight loss: the weight loss maintenance randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Mar 12;299(10):1139–48. doi: 10.1001/jama.299.10.1139. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18334689.299/10/1139 [PubMed] [Cross Ref]