Baseline characteristics are shown in . All patients were males with mean [standard deviation (SD)] age 41.4 years (10.9), BMI (s.d.) 26.1 (4.1) and HCV viremia of 1,445,290 (s.d.) (5,081,127) IU/ml. SD prior to the treatment was in 22 (22%) patients; out of them, 20 (20%) were mildly and 2 (2%) were moderately affected while none of the patients were affected severely. With the treatment, the SD was mild in 20 (20%), moderate in 18 (18%) and severe in 6 (6%) patients. The mean histological activity grades were as follows: Mild 64 (64.0%), moderate 22 (22.0%) and severe 14 (14.0%), and there were no fibrosis in 4 (4%), early fibrosis in 62 (62.0%) and advanced fibrosis was in 34 (34.0%) patients.
Clinical and histological characteristics of the 100 patients with chronic hepatitis C
shows that there was no significant relation between SD and the degree of necro-inflammatory activity prior to the treatment. SD was found in 14 (21.9%), 4 (18.2%) and 4 (28.6%) patients of mild, moderate and severe necro-inflammatory activity, respectively.
Sexual dysfunction and necro-inflammatory activity (pre-treatment)
shows that before treatment, SD was found only in 12 (19.4%) and 10 (29.4%) patients of early and advanced liver fibrosis, respectively. SD during HCV treatment (with Peg-IFN and ribavirin) for liver fibrosis was significant, as 24 (70.6%) out of 34 (100%) of HCV patients had advanced fibrosis, but only 20 (32.3%) out of 62 (100%) patients had early fibrosis and were sexually affected (P = 0.01) [ and ], whereas the effect of treatment on HCV patients with regard to their necro-inflammatory activity grades showed no significant differences in their sexual function. SD was reported by 24 (37.5%), 12 (54.5%) and 8 (57.1%) patients of mild, moderate and severe necro-inflammatory activity .
Sexual dysfunction and liver fibrosis (pretreatment)
Sexual dysfunction and liver fibrosis (with the treatment)
Sexual dysfunction raised significantly (P=0.01) in advanced liver fibrosis patients with the treatment while SD mildly raised in early liver fibrosis patients
Sexual dysfunction and necro-inflammatory activity (with the treatment)
SD during treatment was highly significantly affected (P = 0.001) in those belonging to age group more than 40 years in comparison with those of 40 years or less. In patients more than 40 years, SD was mildly affected in 38 (73.1%), moderately affected in 16 (30.8%), and severely affected in 6 (11.5%) patients. On the other hand, in the age group of ≤40 years, only 6 (12.5%) were sexually affected, 4 (8.3%) were mildly affected and 2 (4.2%) were moderately affected, but no one (0%) was severely sexually affected [Tables and and ]. SD before treatment was found in 22 (22%) patients; 16 (16%) were more than 40 years old and 6 (6%) patients were ≤40 years old. SD showed highly significant (P = 0.001) difference prior to and during treatment. Before treatment, 39 (78%) denied having any SD and only 22 (22%) were sexually affected. While during treatment, the number of patients who were sexually affected rose to 44 (44%). The rest of the group [56 (56%)] did not report any sexual impairment . The patients who had sexual complaints before the treatment continued to complain with the same degree during treatment (10%) (eight mild and two moderate), while 12% of patients deteriorated sexually (6 changed from mild to moderate and 6 from mild to severe). The rest of the group started to complain during the treatment; there were 12 patients who were mildly affected and 10 who were moderately affected and no one reported severe sexual impairment .
Sexual dysfunction prevalence between age groups
Sexual dysfunction and age groups (with the treatment)
Sexual dysfunction with treatment in Group1 (up to 40 years) was mildly affected but severely affected in the age group >40 years
Sexual dysfunction (pre- and with the treatment)
A multivariate analysis was performed to explore the factors independently associated with SD. It included the age, especially above 40 years [OR 16.106 (95% CI 3.340–77.657)] and stages of liver fibrosis [OR 4.490 (95% CI 0.925–21.798)] .