Supported by grants (U10 HL074407, U10 HL074408, U10 HL074409, U10 HL074416, U10 HL074418, U10 HL074422, U10 HL074424, U10 HL074428, U10 HL074431, U10 HL074439, and U10 HL074441) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health. The COPD Clinical Research Network is supported by a Cooperative Agreement from the Division of Lung Diseases of the NHLBI. At some sites, General Clinical Research Center facilities were used; their M01 grants from the National Center for Research Resources are listed in the Supplementary Appendix
Dr. Albert reports receiving consulting fees from Gilead Sciences, fees for expert testimony from the Bruce Fagel Law Firm, and royalties from Elsevier, and being named on a patent pending for a device that provides continuous monitoring of the elevation of the head of the bed (Denver Health and the University of Colorado); Dr. Casaburi, receiving payment for service on the advisory boards of Novartis Pharmaceuticals and Forest Pharmaceuticals, consulting fees from Theratechnologies, Breathe Technologies, Medtronic Spinal and Biologics, Boehringer Ingelheim, Philips Respironics, Novartis, and Actelion Pharmaceuticals, lecture fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, AstraZeneca, and Pfizer, holding stock in Inogen, and receiving grant support from Novartis, Roche, Boehringer Ingelheim, Osiris Therapeutics, Forest Pharmaceuticals, and GlaxoSmithKline, Breathe Technologies (pending), and Theratechnologies (pending); Dr. Cooper, receiving fees for expert testimony from Watkins, Louri, Roll and Change; Lawrence R. Dry & Associates; Starnes Davis Florie LLP; Walker, Tipps & Malone PLC; Moore, Ingram Johnson & Steele; and Farris, Riley & Pitt, LLP; and grant support from GlaxoSmithKline and Novartis; Dr. Criner, receiving consulting fees from Phillips Pharmaceuticals, GlaxoSmithKline, Uptake Medical, and Dey, grant support from Philips Respironics, GlaxoSmithKline, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, and Astra-Zeneca, and royalties from Springer; Dr. Curtis, receiving grant support from Boehringer Ingelheim; Dr. Dransfield, receiving consulting fees from GlaxoSmithKline, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Forest Pharmaceuticals, grant support from GlaxoSmith-Kline, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Boston Scientific, and lecture fees from GlaxoSmithKline and Boehringer Ingelheim; Dr. Han, receiving payment for service on the advisory boards of CSL Behring, GlaxoSmithKline, and Boehringer Ingelheim, consulting fees from Genentech and Novartis, lecture fees from GlaxoSmithKline, CSL Behring, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Pfizer, royalties from UpToDate, and meeting expenses from AstraZeneca; Dr. Madinger, receiving honoraria in conjunction with the Merck Study Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), the JMI Laboratories Sentry study, and the Eurofins Medinet Trust study; Dr. Make, receiving payment for service on the advisory boards of Forest Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca, Novartis, Dey, Nycomed, Philips Respironics, Schering-Plough (now Merck), SeQual, Embryon, Boehringer Ingelheim, Pfizer, and GlaxoSmithKline, consulting fees from Astellas Pharma, Talecris Biotherapeutics, and Chiesi Pharmaceuticals, lecture fees from GlaxoSmithKline, Boehringer Ingelheim, Pfizer, and Forest Pharmaceuticals, payment for manuscript preparation from AstraZeneca, payment for video presentation preparation from Boehringer Ingelheim and Pfizer, payment for document reviews from Spiration, and grant support from AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, Nabi Biopharmaceuticals, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Sunovion; Dr. Martinez, receiving payment for service on the advisory boards of GlaxoSmithKline, MedImmune–Astra Zeneca, Merck, Pearl Therapeutics, Novartis, UBC, Mpex Pharmaceuticals and Ikaria, consulting fees from Forest–Almirall, Boehringer Ingelheim, Nycomed–Forest, Roche, Bayer, Schering-Plough (Merck), HLS, Talecris Biotherapeutics, Comgeniz, f b Communications, BoomComm, Actelion Pharmaceuticals, Elan, Genzyme, Quark Pharmaceuticals, Merck, Pfizer, and Sanofi-Aventis, royalties from Associates in Medical Marketing and Castle Connolly, lecture fees from GlaxoSmithKline, National Association for Continuing Education, Med-Ed, Potomac Pharma, Pfizer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Schering-Plough (Merck), Vox Medica, WebMD, Epocrates, AstraZeneca, and Altana–Nycomed, payment for development of educational presentations for HIT Global and UpToDate, and grant support from Boehringer Ingelheim, Gilead, Johnson & Johnson–Centocor Ortho Biotech, and Actelion Pharmaceuticals; Dr. McEvoy, receiving grant support from Boston Scientific and GlaxoSmithKline and lecture fees from Boehringer Ingelheim and GlaxoSmithKline; Dr. Niewoehner, receiving consulting fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, Forest Research, Merck, Sanofi-Aventis, Bayer Schering Pharma, Nycomed, ProtAffin, and Pfizer; Dr. Porszasz, receiving consulting fees from Breathe Technologies, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, and Forest Pharmaceuticals, and grant support from Boehringer Ingelheim, Forest Pharmaceuticals, Breathe Technologies (pending), and Novartis; Dr. Price, receiving consulting fees from Astellas Pharma, Cubist Pharmaceuticals, and Merck, providing expert testimony on transmission of hospital-associated infections, management of musculoskeletal infections, amino-glycoside toxicity, and diagnosis of infection, receiving grant support from MicroPhage, Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Quintiles, Sanofi Pasteur, BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, and Accelr8 Technology, and lecture fees from Robert Michael (a CME vendor), Cubist Pharmaceuticals, and Baxter Healthcare; Dr. Scanlon, receiving grant support from Altana, Boehringer Ingelheim, Dey, Forest Pharmaceuticals, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, and Pfizer and royalties from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and Wolters Kluwer; Dr. Sciurba, receiving consulting fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, AstraZeneca, and GlaxoSmithKline and grant support from Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline; Dr. Washko, receiving consulting fees from MedImmune and Spiration and being married to an employee of Merck Research Laboratories Division of Clinical Pharmacology; and Dr. Woodruff, receiving consulting fees from MedImmune, grant support from Genentech, and being a coinventor on a patent held jointly by his institution and Genentech.
We thank Dr. Peter Henson for first suggesting the hypothesis tested in this study; Angela Keniston, M.S.P.H., for assistance with the statistical analysis; and Marianne Dieterich and Kris Richardson for assistance with susceptibility testing.