PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of narLink to Publisher's site
 
Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 September 11; 13(17): 6387–6398.
PMCID: PMC321960

The human apolipoprotein AII gene: structural organization and sites of expression.

Abstract

The complete nucleotide sequence of the human apolipoprotein All gene together with 911 bases of 5' flanking sequence and 687 bases of 3' flanking sequence have been determined. The mRNA coding region is interrupted by three introns of 169, 293 and 395bp. The Intro-exon structure of the apo All gene is similar to that of the apo AI, apo CIII and apo E genes: three introns separate 4 coding sequences specifying the 5' untranslated region, pre-peptide, a short N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain composed of a variable number of lipid-binding amphipathic helices. Intron II carries a 33bp dG-dT repetitive element adjacent to the 3' splice junction which has the potential to adopt the Z-DNA conformation. The 5' and 3' terminuses of the mRNA have been identified by primer extension and S1 nuclease mapping. A number of short direct repeats are found in the 5' flanking region and an inverted repeat occurs between the CAAT and TATA boxes. Downstream of the the gene is an Alu family repeat containing a polymorphic MspI site, the deletion of which is associated with increased circulating levels of apoAII. ApoAII gene expression was demonstrated in adult human liver and HepG2 cells but not in human small intestine. Of ten Rhesus monkey tissues examined apo All mRNA was detected only in liver.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • HAVEL RJ, EDER HA, BRAGDON JH. The distribution and chemical composition of ultracentrifugally separated lipoproteins in human serum. J Clin Invest. 1955 Sep;34(9):1345–1353. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brewer HB, Jr, Lux SE, Ronan R, John KM. Amino acid sequence of human apoLp-Gln-II (apoA-II), an apolipoprotein isolated from the high-density lipoprotein complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1972 May;69(5):1304–1308. [PubMed]
  • Lackner KJ, Edge SB, Gregg RE, Hoeg JM, Brewer HB., Jr Isoforms of apolipoprotein A-II in human plasma and thoracic duct lymph. Identification of proapolipoprotein A-II and sialic acid-containing isoforms. J Biol Chem. 1985 Jan 25;260(2):703–706. [PubMed]
  • Gordon JI, Budelier KA, Sims HF, Edelstein C, Scanu AM, Strauss AW. Biosynthesis of human preproapolipoprotein A-II. J Biol Chem. 1983 Nov 25;258(22):14054–14059. [PubMed]
  • Gordon JI, Sims HF, Edelstein C, Scanu AM, Strauss AW. Human proapolipoprotein A-II is cleaved following secretion from Hep G2 cells by a thiol protease. J Biol Chem. 1984 Dec 25;259(24):15556–15563. [PubMed]
  • Mao SJ, Sparrow JT, Gilliam EB, Gotto AM, Jr, Jackson RL. Mechanism of lipid-protein interaction in the plasma lipoproteins: lipid-binding properties of synthetic fragments of apolipoprotein A-II. Biochemistry. 1977 Sep 20;16(19):4150–4156. [PubMed]
  • Jahn CE, Osborne JC, Jr, Schaefer EJ, Brewer HB., Jr In vitro activation of the enzymic activity of hepatic lipase by apoA-II. FEBS Lett. 1981 Aug 31;131(2):366–368. [PubMed]
  • Polacek D, Byrne RE, Burrous M, Scanu AM. Factors controlling the release from human blood polymorphonuclear cells in vitro of a proteolytic activity directed against apolipoprotein A-II. J Biol Chem. 1984 Dec 10;259(23):14531–14536. [PubMed]
  • Byrne RE, Polacek D, Gordon JI, Scanu AM. The enzyme that cleaves apolipoprotein A-II upon in vitro incubation of human plasma high-density lipoprotein-3 with blood polymorphonuclear cells is an elastase. J Biol Chem. 1984 Dec 10;259(23):14537–14543. [PubMed]
  • Fager G, Wiklund O, Olofsson SO, Wilhelmsen L, Bondjers G. Multivariate analyses of serum apolipoproteins and risk factors in relation to acute myocardial infarction. Arteriosclerosis. 1981 Jul-Aug;1(4):273–279. [PubMed]
  • Pilger E, Pristautz H, Pfeiffer KP, Kostner G. Risk factors for peripheral atherosclerosis. Retrospective evaluation by stepwise discriminant analysis. Arteriosclerosis. 1983 Jan-Feb;3(1):57–63. [PubMed]
  • Scott J, Knott TJ, Priestley LM, Robertson ME, Mann DV, Kostner G, Miller GJ, Miller NE. High-density lipoprotein composition is altered by a common DNA polymorphism adjacent to apoprotein AII gene in man. Lancet. 1985 Apr 6;1(8432):771–773. [PubMed]
  • Knott TJ, Priestley LM, Urdea M, Scott J. Isolation and characterisation of a cDNA encoding the precursor for human apolipoprotein AII. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1984 May 16;120(3):734–740. [PubMed]
  • Grosveld FG, Lund T, Murray EJ, Mellor AL, Dahl HH, Flavell RA. The construction of cosmid libraries which can be used to transform eukaryotic cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Nov 11;10(21):6715–6732. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Grosveld FG, Dahl HH, de Boer E, Flavell RA. Isolation of beta-globin-related genes from a human cosmid library. Gene. 1981 Apr;13(3):227–237. [PubMed]
  • Biggin MD, Gibson TJ, Hong GF. Buffer gradient gels and 35S label as an aid to rapid DNA sequence determination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Jul;80(13):3963–3965. [PubMed]
  • Chirgwin JM, Przybyla AE, MacDonald RJ, Rutter WJ. Isolation of biologically active ribonucleic acid from sources enriched in ribonuclease. Biochemistry. 1979 Nov 27;18(24):5294–5299. [PubMed]
  • Thomas PS. Hybridization of denatured RNA and small DNA fragments transferred to nitrocellulose. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Sep;77(9):5201–5205. [PubMed]
  • Rall LB, Scott J, Bell GI, Crawford RJ, Penschow JD, Niall HD, Coghlan JP. Mouse prepro-epidermal growth factor synthesis by the kidney and other tissues. Nature. 1985 Jan 17;313(5999):228–231. [PubMed]
  • Berk AJ, Sharp PA. Sizing and mapping of early adenovirus mRNAs by gel electrophoresis of S1 endonuclease-digested hybrids. Cell. 1977 Nov;12(3):721–732. [PubMed]
  • Scott J, Selby M, Urdea M, Quiroga M, Bell GI, Rutter WJ. Isolation and nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the precursor of mouse nerve growth factor. Nature. 1983 Apr 7;302(5908):538–540. [PubMed]
  • Mount SM. A catalogue of splice junction sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Jan 22;10(2):459–472. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hamada H, Kakunaga T. Potential Z-DNA forming sequences are highly dispersed in the human genome. Nature. 1982 Jul 22;298(5872):396–398. [PubMed]
  • Wang AH, Quigley GJ, Kolpak FJ, Crawford JL, van Boom JH, van der Marel G, Rich A. Molecular structure of a left-handed double helical DNA fragment at atomic resolution. Nature. 1979 Dec 13;282(5740):680–686. [PubMed]
  • Hamada H, Petrino MG, Kakunaga T. A novel repeated element with Z-DNA-forming potential is widely found in evolutionarily diverse eukaryotic genomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Nov;79(21):6465–6469. [PubMed]
  • Hamada H, Petrino MG, Kakunaga T. Molecular structure and evolutionary origin of human cardiac muscle actin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Oct;79(19):5901–5905. [PubMed]
  • Miesfeld R, Krystal M, Arnheim N. A member of a new repeated sequence family which is conserved throughout eucaryotic evolution is found between the human delta and beta globin genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Nov 25;9(22):5931–5947. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Breathnach R, Chambon P. Organization and expression of eucaryotic split genes coding for proteins. Annu Rev Biochem. 1981;50:349–383. [PubMed]
  • Proudfoot NJ, Shander MH, Manley JL, Gefter ML, Maniatis T. Structure and in vitro transcription of human globin genes. Science. 1980 Sep 19;209(4463):1329–1336. [PubMed]
  • Paik YK, Chang DJ, Reardon CA, Davies GE, Mahley RW, Taylor JM. Nucleotide sequence and structure of the human apolipoprotein E gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 May;82(10):3445–3449. [PubMed]
  • Davidson EH, Jacobs HT, Britten RJ. Very short repeats and coordinate induction of genes. Nature. 1983 Feb 10;301(5900):468–470. [PubMed]
  • Shoulders CC, Kornblihtt AR, Munro BS, Baralle FE. Gene structure of human apolipoprotein A1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 May 11;11(9):2827–2837. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Protter AA, Levy-Wilson B, Miller J, Bencen G, White T, Seilhamer JJ. Isolation and sequence analysis of the human apolipoprotein CIII gene and the intergenic region between the apo AI and apo CIII genes. DNA. 1984 Dec;3(6):449–456. [PubMed]
  • van het Schip AD, Meijlink FC, Strijker R, Gruber M, van Vliet AJ, van de Klundert JA, Ab G. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken apo very low density lipoprotein II gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 May 11;11(9):2529–2540. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Nucleic Acids Research are provided here courtesy of Oxford University Press