In this review, we present an overview of intestinal development and cellular differentiation of the intestinal epithelium. The review is separated into two sections: Section one summarizes organogenesis of the small and large intestines, including endoderm and gut tube formation in early embryogenesis, villus morphogenesis, and crypt formation. Section two reviews cell fate specification and differentiation of each cell type within the intestinal epithelium. Growth factor and transcriptional networks that regulate these developmental processes are summarized.
Keywords: intestine, development, differentiation, epithelium, endoderm, villus, crypt, endoderm, goblet cell, Paneth, enteroendocrine, enterocyte, colonocyte, tuft cell, stem cell