Overall, 392 children presenting with diarrhea were enrolled in the study. Eighteen children presented with two diarrhea episodes for a total of 410 episodes. These 410 episodes among children under age 3 years represented 59% of the diarrhea visits reported to the MOH in the under age 5 years age group from these six clinics; therefore, our recruitment rate was at least 59%. Stool samples were obtained for 403 of 410 episodes (98.3%). Five children who were not able to provide a stool sample were excluded from the analysis.
Fourteen of four hundred three (3.5%; 95% CI = 1.9–5.8) stool samples tested positive for rotavirus, of which four samples were PG1, two samples were PG2, one sample was PG3, one sample was PG4, and three samples were mixed infections. One sample was negative for the genotypes investigated, and two samples were not investigated for genotypes because of insufficient stool quantity. The three mixed infections were P:G2/G9, P/P:G1/G9, and P:G1/G2/G4. Among those children who tested positive for rotavirus, 10 children had received all three doses of the vaccine, 3 children were partially immunized, and 1 child had not received vaccine. All of the G and P types reported above were observed among fully immunized children. The child with the P:G1/G2/G4 infection was unimmunized. Two children presented with rotavirus diarrhea within 2 days after receiving the vaccine.
Characteristics of the children are shown in . Children had an average age of 12.4 months, and 71.9% were breastfed. All participants who had received RV5 had also received the oral polio vaccine on the same day for at least one RV5 dose. The children who tested positive for rotavirus were less likely to have an indoor toilet. There was no difference in immunization status between those children who tested positive for rotavirus and those children with diarrhea of another cause.
Characteristics of 387 children with diarrhea in the primary care setting
Clinical characteristics of the diarrhea episodes experienced among the children are shown in . There were no differences in these clinical characteristics among episodes caused by rotavirus and episodes caused by other etiologies. There were also no differences in clinical characteristics of rotavirus episodes between those children immunized and those children unimmunized with RV5.
Characteristics of diarrhea episodes (N = 403)