Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of narLink to Publisher's site
Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 November 26; 12(22): 8685–8697.
PMCID: PMC320407

Comparison of the whey acidic protein genes of the rat and mouse.


Whey acidic protein (WAP), a hormonally-regulated 14,000 dalton cysteine-rich protein, is the principal whey protein found in rodent milk. Genomic clones encompassing both the 2.8 Kb rat and 3.3 Kb mouse WAP genes have been characterized. The genes consist of four exons and three introns. The middle two exons encode the two cysteine-rich regions which probably form separate protein domains. Homology in the 5' flanking DNA of the mouse and rat extends at least 325 bp upstream of the putative CAP site, including a precisely conserved stretch of 50 bp around the unusual TATA and CAAT sites. The homology previously observed between the 3' noncoding sequences of the rat and mouse mRNAs extends at least 20 bp into the 3' flanking region. Several potential glucocorticoid receptor binding sites have been found in the 5' flanking region of the WAP gene. The conservation of the 5' flanking region of the WAP genes may be related to regulation of expression of WAP by peptide and/or steroid hormones.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Hennighausen LG, Sippel AE. Characterization and cloning of the mRNAs specific for the lactating mouse mammary gland. Eur J Biochem. 1982 Jun 15;125(1):131–141. [PubMed]
  • Hennighausen LG, Sippel AE, Hobbs AA, Rosen JM. Comparative sequence analysis of the mRNAs coding for mouse and rat whey protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Jun 25;10(12):3733–3744. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zamierowski MM, Ebner KE. A radioimmunoassay for mouse alpha-lactalbumin. J Immunol Methods. 1980;36(3-4):211–220. [PubMed]
  • Richards DA, Rodgers JR, Supowit SC, Rosen JM. Construction and preliminary characterization of the rat casein and alpha-lactalbumin cDNA clones. J Biol Chem. 1981 Jan 10;256(1):526–532. [PubMed]
  • Hobbs AA, Richards DA, Kessler DJ, Rosen JM. Complex hormonal regulation of rat casein gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1982 Apr 10;257(7):3598–3605. [PubMed]
  • Dandekar AM, Robinson EA, Appella E, Qasba PK. Complete sequence analysis of cDNA clones encoding rat whey phosphoprotein: homology to a protease inhibitor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Jul;79(13):3987–3991. [PubMed]
  • Hennighausen LG, Sippel AE. Mouse whey acidic protein is a novel member of the family of 'four-disulfide core' proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Apr 24;10(8):2677–2684. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Drenth J, Low BW, Richardson JS, Wright CS. The toxin-agglutinin fold. A new group of small protein structures organized around a four-disulfide core. J Biol Chem. 1980 Apr 10;255(7):2652–2655. [PubMed]
  • Drenth J. The structure of neurophysin. J Biol Chem. 1981 Mar 25;256(6):2601–2602. [PubMed]
  • Gilbert W. Why genes in pieces? Nature. 1978 Feb 9;271(5645):501–501. [PubMed]
  • Stein JP, Catterall JF, Kristo P, Means AR, O'Malley BW. Ovomucoid intervening sequences specify functional domains and generate protein polymorphism. Cell. 1980 Oct;21(3):681–687. [PubMed]
  • Eiferman FA, Young PR, Scott RW, Tilghman SM. Intragenic amplification and divergence in the mouse alpha-fetoprotein gene. Nature. 1981 Dec 24;294(5843):713–718. [PubMed]
  • Herrlich P, Hynes NE, Ponta H, Rahmsdorf U, Kennedy N, Groner B. The endogenous proviral mouse mammary tumor virus genes of the GR mouse are not identical and only one corresponds to the exogenous virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Oct 10;9(19):4981–4995. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Benton WD, Davis RW. Screening lambdagt recombinant clones by hybridization to single plaques in situ. Science. 1977 Apr 8;196(4286):180–182. [PubMed]
  • Rigby PW, Dieckmann M, Rhodes C, Berg P. Labeling deoxyribonucleic acid to high specific activity in vitro by nick translation with DNA polymerase I. J Mol Biol. 1977 Jun 15;113(1):237–251. [PubMed]
  • Yu-Lee LY, Rosen JM. The rat casein multigene family. I. Fine structure of the gamma-casein gene. J Biol Chem. 1983 Sep 10;258(17):10794–10804. [PubMed]
  • Southern EM. Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J Mol Biol. 1975 Nov 5;98(3):503–517. [PubMed]
  • Smith GE, Summers MD. The bidirectional transfer of DNA and RNA to nitrocellulose or diazobenzyloxymethyl-paper. Anal Biochem. 1980 Nov 15;109(1):123–129. [PubMed]
  • Rüther U. pUR 250 allows rapid chemical sequencing of both DNA strands of its inserts. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Oct 11;10(19):5765–5772. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maxam AM, Gilbert W. Sequencing end-labeled DNA with base-specific chemical cleavages. Methods Enzymol. 1980;65(1):499–560. [PubMed]
  • Smith AJ. DNA sequence analysis by primed synthesis. Methods Enzymol. 1980;65(1):560–580. [PubMed]
  • Mount SM. A catalogue of splice junction sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Jan 22;10(2):459–472. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Breathnach R, Chambon P. Organization and expression of eucaryotic split genes coding for proteins. Annu Rev Biochem. 1981;50:349–383. [PubMed]
  • Berget SM. Are U4 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins involved in polyadenylation? Nature. 1984 May 10;309(5964):179–182. [PubMed]
  • Benoist C, O'Hare K, Breathnach R, Chambon P. The ovalbumin gene-sequence of putative control regions. Nucleic Acids Res. 1980 Jan 11;8(1):127–142. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Motojima K, Oka T. 5'-Terminal sequence of the mRNA of mouse whey acidic protein contains three possible sites of interaction with 18S rRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1983 Oct 14;116(1):167–172. [PubMed]
  • Qasba PK, Safaya SK. Similarity of the nucleotide sequences of rat alpha-lactalbumin and chicken lysozyme genes. Nature. 1984 Mar 22;308(5957):377–380. [PubMed]
  • Miyata T, Hayashida H, Kikuno R, Hasegawa M, Kobayashi M, Koike K. Molecular clock of silent substitution: at least six-fold preponderance of silent changes in mitochondrial genes over those in nuclear genes. J Mol Evol. 1982;19(1):28–35. [PubMed]
  • Quinto C, Quiroga M, Swain WF, Nikovits WC, Jr, Standring DN, Pictet RL, Valenzuela P, Rutter WJ. Rat preprocarboxypeptidase A: cDNA sequence and preliminary characterization of the gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Jan;79(1):31–35. [PubMed]
  • Nathans J, Hogness DS. Isolation, sequence analysis, and intron-exon arrangement of the gene encoding bovine rhodopsin. Cell. 1983 Oct;34(3):807–814. [PubMed]
  • Montminy MR, Goodman RH, Horovitch SJ, Habener JF. Primary structure of the gene encoding rat preprosomatostatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jun;81(11):3337–3340. [PubMed]
  • Payvar F, DeFranco D, Firestone GL, Edgar B, Wrange O, Okret S, Gustafsson JA, Yamamoto KR. Sequence-specific binding of glucocorticoid receptor to MTV DNA at sites within and upstream of the transcribed region. Cell. 1983 Dec;35(2 Pt 1):381–392. [PubMed]
  • Mulvihill ER, LePennec JP, Chambon P. Chicken oviduct progesterone receptor: location of specific regions of high-affinity binding in cloned DNA fragments of hormone-responsive genes. Cell. 1982 Mar;28(3):621–632. [PubMed]
  • Pfahl M. Specific binding of the glucocorticoid-receptor complex to the mouse mammary tumor proviral promoter region. Cell. 1982 Dec;31(2 Pt 1):475–482. [PubMed]

Articles from Nucleic Acids Research are provided here courtesy of Oxford University Press