In this Clinical Trial, 62 older residents of elderly home in Isfahan were studied. The population in this study consisted of all the 60-year-old-and-above elderly who resided at Sadeghieh Elderly Home in Isfahan city and were interested to volunteer in the study and didn’t have any record of exercising or continuous and regular physical activity. They had received a score of 5 and above in an analysis done by Petersburg Sleep Quality Questionnaire and had gotten a confirmation from their doctor in order to participate in the exercising program. Blood tests and cardiograph were taken from all the elderly to receive the doctor's confirmation. They randomized in two experimental and control groups. The Sampling Procedure is presented in .
The experiment group in this study included the elderly who participated in Ti Chi exercising program beside their daily activities at Sadeghieh Elderly Home. The intervention was the Tai Chi Exercise sessions. The control group included the elderly who didn’t participate in any exercising activity along their daily activities at the Elderly Home. With regard to the nature of athletic interventions, there was no possibility to adopt blinding in this study.
Also, the elderly who had not participated continuously in 5% of the exercising sessions or frequently in 10% of the sessions or didn’t show consent to keep up with the study were omitted.
In order to collect the data, the Petersburg Sleep Quality Questionnaire was used, which is a reliable questionnaire with a Cronbach alpha of 89 percent and is applied for examining the sleep quality of the elderly.5,18
This questionnaire examines seven aspects of sleep in the recent month, including the duration of being in bed, delay in starting to sleep, sleep efficiency, the individual's perception of his/her sleep quality, sleep disturbing factors, the amount of the consumed soporific, and the morning functioning of the individual. The Likert scale with a budgeting of 0 to 3 was employed to budget all the questions in this questionnaire on which “zero” represents the absence of any disorder in individual's sleep quality and accordingly “three” represents the maximum level of disorder in the individual's sleep quality. In order to examine and ultimately balance the effect of depression, the Bach 2 Depression Questionnaire with a Cronbach alpha coefficient of about 91 percent was used19,20
. This questionnaire has 21 items and each item is assigned 0 to 3 points, in which the “zero” means not having that temperamental mood and “three” means having that temperamental mood in a severe manner. After coming up with the total of all the points in the questionnaire, the attained points were interpreted in this way. With regard to the inclusion of 21 items in the questionnaire, each individual would receive points 0 to 63 from the Bach 2 Depression Questionnaire. In order to define the Body Mass Index, the measurement of height and weight of the elderly was used.
The 10-stage Ti Chi exercise recommended by Mr. Wolf et al and designed for the above-60-year-old elderly is used in this study.21
This protocol has been used by other researchers too and Audit, et al employed it to so a study on elderly women.22
Two physical training coaches, who had the experience of working with the elderly performed the exercising interventions equally for all the elderly; one coach performing them during the study and another one guiding the elderly, correcting their motions and coordinating them. At the beginning of the study, the men's group was divided into two groups of 8 and the women's group was also divided into two groups of 7 and 8. The exercising intervention was performed for 12 weeks, 3 sessions each week, while the duration of the Ti Chi exercise was 5 minutes in the first session and 5 minutes were added in each following week so that the intervention reached to 20 to 25 minutes of Ti Chi exercise in each session at the end of the first month.
The data in this study are of qualitative and quantitative types, for the analysis of which the SPSS software, version 14 was used to conduct descriptive and inferential statistical tests. In order to compare each group both before and after the study, the Paired t-test was used and to compare both groups, the Independent t-test was employed.