Author affiliations: Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Alison G. Abraham, Bryan Lau, Richard D. Moore, Jinbing Zhang, Lisa Jacobson, Greg Kirk, Jennifer Thorne, Stephen J. Gange, Kelly Gebo); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Bryan Lau); Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Richard D. Moore); Division of Ocular Immunology, The Wilmer Eye Institute, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Jennifer Thorne); Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Kelly Gebo); Departments of Epidemiology and Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (Steven Deeks, Jeff Martin); Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (Joseph Eron); Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (Sonia Napravnik); Laboratory Program, Drug Treatment Program, BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (Richard Harrigan); Epidemiology and Population Health Program, BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (Robert Hogg); Departments of Medicine, Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Pathology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (John M. Gill); Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (Mari Kitahata); Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunodeficiency Service, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Marina Klein); Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Anita Rachlis); Department of Psychiatry, Ontario HIV Treatment Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Sean Rourke); Division of Infectious Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (Benigno Rodriguez); Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California (Constance Benson); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (Ron Bosch); Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (Ann Collier); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (James Goedert); Epidemiology Branch, Office of Clinical Research Operations, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (Rosemary McKaig); Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California (Michael Horberg, Michael Silverberg); Department of Internal Medicine, VA Connecticut Healthcare System and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (Amy Justice); Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee (Timothy Sterling); and Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama (James Willig).
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grants U01-AI069918, U01-AA013566, U01-AI31834, U01-AI34989, U01-AI34993, U01-AI34994, U01-AI35004, U01-AI35039, U01-AI35040, U01-AI35041, U01-AI35042, U01-AI35043, U01-AI37613, U01-AI37984, U01-AI38855, U01-AI38858, U01-AI42590, U01-AI68634, U01-AI68636, U01-HD32632, U10-EY08057, U10-EY08052, U10- EY08067, UL1-RR024131, MO1-RR-00052, M01-RR00071, M01-RR00079, M01-RR00083, M01-RR00722, MM01- RR025747, P30-AI27757, P30-AI27767, P30-AI50410, P30-AI54999, R01-DA04334, R01-DA12568, R01-MH54907, R24-AI067039, Z01-CP010176, AHQ290-01-0012, N02-CP55504, R01-DA11602, AI-69432, AI-69434, K01-AI071725, K01-AI071754, R01-AA16893, K24-00432, K23-AI-61-0320, and K23 EY013707); the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (grant CDC200-2006-18797); the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (grants TGF-96118, HCP-97105, CBR-86906, CBR-94036, KRS-86251, and 169621); and the Canadian Trials Network (project number 242).
North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) cohorts and representatives (*contributed to this study): AIDS Link to the IntraVenous Experience (Dr. Gregory D. Kirk); Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (Drs. Constance A. Benson, Ronald J. Bosch, and Ann C. Collier); *HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (Drs. Robert S. Hogg, Richard Harrigan, Julio Montaner, and Angela Cescon); HIV Outpatient Study (Drs. John T. Brooks and Kate Buchacz); HIV Research Network (Dr. Kelly A. Gebo); *Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort (Dr. Richard D. Moore); *John T. Carey Special Immunology Unit Patient Care and Research Database, Case Western Reserve University (Dr. Benigno Rodriguez); *Kaiser Permanente Northern California (Drs. Michael A. Horberg and Michael J. Silverberg); Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS (Dr. Jennifer E. Thorne); Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study–II (Dr. James J. Goedert); Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (Dr. Lisa P. Jacobson); *Montreal Chest Institute Immunodeficiency Service Cohort (Dr. Marina B. Klein); *Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study (Drs. Sean B. Rourke, Ann Burchell, and Anita R. Rachlis); *Southern Alberta Clinic Cohort (Dr. M. John Gill); Studies of the Consequences of the Protease Inhibitor Era (Drs. Steven G. Deeks and Jeffery N. Martin); University of Alabama at Birmingham 1917 Clinic Cohort (Drs. Michael S. Saag, Michael Mugavero, and James Willig); *University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill HIV Clinic Cohort (Drs. Joseph J. Eron and Sonia Napravnik); *University of Washington HIV Cohort (Drs. Mari M. Kitahata and Heidi M. Crane); Veterans Aging Cohort Study (Drs. Amy C. Justice, Robert Dubrow, and David Fiellin); Vanderbilt-Meharry CFAR Cohort (Drs. Timothy R. Sterling, Sam Stinette, and David Haas); Women’s Interagency HIV Study (Drs. Stephen J. Gange and Kathryn Anastos). NA-ACCORD Executive Committee: Drs. Richard D. Moore, Michael S. Saag, Stephen J. Gange, Mari M. Kitahata, and Rosemary G. McKaig, as well as Aimee M. Freeman. Epidemiology/Biostatistics Core: Dr. Stephen J. Gange, Dr. Alison G. Abraham, Dr. Bryan Lau, Dr. Keri N. Althoff, Jinbing Zhang, Jerry Jing, Dr. Elizabeth Golub, Dr. Shari Modur, David Hanna, Peter Rebeiro, Adell Mendes, and Aaron Platt. Data Management Core: Dr. Mari M. Kitahata, Dr. Stephen E. Van Rompaey, Dr. Heidi M. Crane, Eric Webster, Liz Morton, and Brenda Simon.
Conflict of interest: none declared.