The coating material used in the workplace, an ivory white soft paste (polyacrylic ester stated by the paste producer), was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and was found containing the following components [4
]: butanoic acid, butyl ester, N-butyl ether, acetic acid, toluene, di-tert-butyl peroxide, 1-butanol, acetic acid ethenyl ester, isopropyl alcohol, and ethylene dioxide. Unfortunately, these patients exhibited none of the signs and symptoms related to these irritant or asphyxiant gases, such as coughing, eye irritation, dizziness/headaches, drowsiness, nausea, or vomiting. In addition, the powder component in the raw materials used in the workplace was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and was found containing (%): Si 0.016, Ba 0.069, Ca 0.20, Mg 0.051, Cu 0.0090, Fe 0.098, K 0.015, Na 0.82, Zn 0.0085, and P 0.048 [5
Nanoparticles found in the patients' pulmonary tissues and chest effusions were the same raw materials used by these workers. Element of silica of nanoparticles was identified in biopsies and chest fluid by using transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. They were largely found in macrophages (cytoplasm, mitochondria, lysosomes, and nuclei), pulmonary microvascular vessels, vascular endothelial cells, microlymphatic vessels, and pleural effusions. We also observed silica nanoparticles accumulated in alveolar epithelial cells and pulmonary interstitial tissue but to a less extent [4
]. In addition, nanosilicates, as well as microscale silicates, were also observed in a patient pleural effusion and contained elements of Si, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Ba, Al, P, S, Cl, and O [5
The concordance of the components of powder in the raw material and nanomaterials in patients' biopsies indicated that the powder in the raw material was made of silica nanoparticles and silicates, a mixture used to obtain some special coating quality, such as abrasive resistant, flame retardant, or adherent. Thus, a rough sketch can be made of the coatings used at these patients' workplace: filters and additives of silica nanoparticles and nano- and microscale silicates, a film-forming polyacrylate agent, and various solvents, including butanoic acid, butyl ester, acetic acid, and toluene.