1. Fisher R. Still thinking: the case for meditation with children. Think Skills Creat. 2006;1(2):146–151.
2. Erricker J, Levete G, Erricker C. Meditation in Schools. New York, NY: Continuum International; 2001.
3. Wall RB. Tai chi and mindfulness-based stress reduction in a Boston public middle school. J Pediatr Health Care. 2005;19(4):230–237. [PubMed]
4. Garrison Institute. Contemplation and Education: A Survey of Programs Using Contemplative Techniques in K-12 Educational Settings—A Mapping Report. Garrison, NY: Garrison Institute; 2005.
5. Craven JL. Meditation and psychotherapy. Can J Psychiatry. 1989;34(7):648–653. [PubMed] 6. Snaith P. Meditation and psychotherapy. Br J Psychiatry. 1998;173:193–195. [PubMed] 7. Galantino ML, Galbavy R, Quinn L. Therapeutic effects of yoga for children: a systematic review of the literature. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2008;20(1):66–80. [PubMed] 8. Manocha R, Marks GB, Kenchington P, Peters D, Salome CM. Sahaja yoga in the management of moderate to severe asthma: a randomized controlled trial. Thorax. 2002;57(2):110–115. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 9. Orme-Johnson DW, Walton KG. All approaches to preventing or reversing effects of stress are not the same. Am J Health Promot. 1998;12(5):297–299. [PubMed]
10. Kabat-Zinn JA. Wherever You Go, There You Are: Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life. New York, NY: Hyperion; 1994. p. 4.
11. Kutz I, Borysenko JZ, Benson H. Meditation and psychotherapy: a rationale for the integration of dynamic psychotherapy, the relaxation response, and mindfulness meditation. Am J Psychiatry. 1985;142(1):1–8. [PubMed]
12. Kabat-Zinn J. Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness. New York, NY: Delacorte; 1990.
14. Salmon P, Sephton S, Weissbecker I, et al. Mindfulness meditation in clinical practice. Cogn Behav Pract. 2004;11(4):434–446.
15. Segal ZV, Williams JMG, Teasdale JD. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression: A New Approach to Preventing Relapse. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2002.
16. Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation. [Accessed July 29, 2009];The transcendental meditation program: the technique. Available at: www.tm.org/the-technique.
17. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi on the Bhagavad Gita. New York, NY: Penguin; 1969.
18. Travis F, Pearson C. Pure consciousness: distinct phenomenological and physiological correlates of “consciousness itself” Int J Neurosci. 2000;100(1–4):77–89. [PubMed]
19. Travis FT. Transcendental meditation technique. In: Craighead WE, Nemeroff CB, editors. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science. 3. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 2001. pp. 1705–1706.
20. Delmonte MM. Meditation and anxiety reduction: a literature review. Clin Psychol Rev. 1985;5(2):91–102.
21. Arias AJ, Steinberg K, Banga A, et al. Systematic review of the efficacy of meditation techniques as treatments for medical illness. J Altern Complement Med. 2006;12(8):817–832. [PubMed] 22. Ott MJ, Norris RL, Bauer-Wu SM. Mindfulness meditation for oncology patients: a discussion and critical review. Integr Cancer Ther. 2006;5(2):98–108. [PubMed] 23. Teixeira ME. Meditation as an intervention for chronic pain: an integrative review. Holist Nurs Pract. 2008;22(4):225–234. [PubMed] 24. Winbush NY, Gross CR, Kreitzer MJ. The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on sleep disturbance: a systematic review. Explore. 2007;3(6):585–591. [PubMed] 25. Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al. Meditation practices for health: state of the research. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) 2007;(155):1–263. [PubMed] 26. Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Salerno JW, Nordstrom CK, Bairey MCN. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease part 2: effectiveness of the transcendental meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behav Med. 2002;28(3):106–123. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 27. Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich S. Review of controlled research on the transcendental meditation program and cardiovascular disease: risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Cardiol Rev. 2004;12(5):262–266. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 28. Walton KG, Schneider RH, Salerno JW, Nidich SI. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 3: clinical and policy implications of research on the transcendental meditation program. Behav Med. 2005;30(4):173–183. [PubMed] 29. Grossman P, Niemann L, Schmidt S, Walach H. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: a meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res. 2004;57(1):35–43. [PubMed] 30. Anderson JW, Liu C, Kryscio RJ. Blood pressure response to transcendental meditation: a meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens. 2008;21(3):310–316. [PubMed] 31. Rainforth MV, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, Salerno JW, Anderson JW. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2007;9(6):520. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 32. Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DM. Clinical and pre-clinical applications of the transcendental meditation program in the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension and cardiovascular disease in youth and adults. Curr Hypertens Rev. 2006;2(3):207–218. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 33. Cahn BR, Polich J. Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychol Bull. 2006;132(2):180–211. [PubMed] 34. Carlson LE, Speca M, Patel KD, et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction in relation to quality of life, mood, symptoms of stress, and immune parameters in breast and prostate cancer outpatients. Psychosom Med. 2003;65(4):571–581. [PubMed]
35. Brown KW, Ryan RM, Creswell JD. Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychol Inq. 2007;18(4):211–237.
36. Davidson RJ, Kabat-Zinn J, Schumacher J, et al. Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosom Med. 2003;65(4):564–570. [PubMed] 37. Travis F, Haaga DAF, Hagelin J, et al. Effects of transcendental meditation practice on brain functioning and stress reactivity in college students. Int J Psychophysiol. 2008;71(2):170 –176. [PubMed] 38. Kjaer TW, Bertelsen C, Piccini P, Brooks D, Alving J, Lou HC. Increased dopamine tone during meditation-induced change of consciousness. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2002;13(2):255–259. [PubMed] 40. Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Davis H. Impact of transcendental meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. J Psychosom Res. 2001;51(4):597–605. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 41. Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Johnson MH. Impact of transcendental meditation on ambulatory blood pressure in African-American adolescents. Am J Hypertens. 2004;17(4):366–369. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 42. Barnes VA, Davis HC, Murzynowski JB, Treiber FA. Impact of meditation on resting and ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in youth. Psychosom Med. 2004;66(6):909–914. [PubMed]
43. Barnes VA, Malhotra S, Treiber FA. Impact of transcendental meditation on vascular function in African American adolescents [abstract] Psychosom Med. 2005;67:A31.
44. Barnes VA, Pendergrast RA, Harshfield GA, Treiber FA. Impact of breathing awareness meditation on ambulatory blood pressure and sodium handling in prehypertensive African American adolescents. Ethn Dis. 2008;18(1):1–5. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 45. Barnes VA, Bauza LB, Treiber FA. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2003;1:10. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
46. Grosswald SJ, Stixrud AWR, Stixrud W, Travis AF, Bateh MA. Use of the transcendental meditation technique to reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by reducing stress and anxiety: an exploratory study. Curr Issues Educ. 2008;10(2):1–16.
47. Lee J, Semple RJ, Rosa D, et al. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for children: results of a pilot study. J Cogn Psychother. 2008;22(1):15–28.
48. Semple RJ, Lee J, Rosa D, Miller LF. A randomized trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for children: promoting mindful attention to enhance social-emotional resiliency in children. J Child Fam Stud. 2009 In press.
49. Singh NN, Lancioni GE, Singh Joy SD, et al. Adolescents with conduct disorder can be mindful of their aggressive behavior. J Emot Behav Disord. 2007;15(1):56–63.
50. Beauchemin J, Hutchins TL, Patterson F. Mindfulness meditation may lessen anxiety, promote social skills, and improve academic performance among adolescents with learning disabilities. Complement Health Pract Rev. 2008;13(1):34–45.
52. Semple RJ, Reid EFG, Miller L. Treating anxiety with mindfulness: an open trial of mindfulness training for anxious children. J Cogn Psychother. 2005;19(4):379–392.
53. Napoli M, Krech PR, Holley LC. Mindfulness training for elementary school students: the attention academy. J Appl Sch Psychol. 2004;21(1):99–123.
54. Biegel GM, Brown KW, Shapiro SL. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for the treatment of adolescent psychiatric outpatients: a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2009 In press. [PubMed] 55. Zylowska L, Ackerman DL, Yang MH, et al. Mindfulness meditation training in adults and adolescents with ADHD: a feasibility study. J Atten Disord. 2008;11(6):737–746. [PubMed]
56. Baer RA. Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clin Psychol. 2003;10(2):125–143.
57. Seligman ME, Steen TA, Park N, Peterson C. Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions. Am Psychol. 2005;60(5):410–421. [PubMed]
58. Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1977.
59. Baer RA, Smith GT, Allen KB. Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: the Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills. Assessment. 2004;11(3):191–206. [PubMed] 60. Baer RA, Smith GT, Hopkins J, Krietemeyer J, Toney L. Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment. 2006;13(1):27–45. [PubMed]
61. MacKillop J, Anderson EJ. Further psychometric validation of the mindful attention awareness scale (MAAS) J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2007;29(4):289–293.
62. Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) [Accessed July 29, 2009];Transparent reporting of trials. Available at: www.consort-statement.org.
63. Benson H. The Relaxation Response. New York, NY: Avon; 1975.