There were a total of 40 patients; 25 bipolar patients in remission and 15 recurrent depressive disorder (RDD) patients in remission. The two groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, education, age of onset, duration of illness, duration of last episode, period of remission, and duration of treatment (all P values >0.05, not significant) [Tables and ].
Comparison of sociodemographic details
Comparison of sociodemographic details and illness variables
Bipolar patients had a statistically significant (P=0.016) higher mean number of episodes compared with RDD patients. Treatment compliance was found to be better for RDD patients compared with bipolar patients (P=0.025). Total duration of illness was more for bipolar patients compared with RDD patients, but the result was not statistically significant (P=0.095). Duration of treatment was more for bipolar patient (mean 7.72 years).
Statistically no significant difference was observed in two groups with regard to occupation, socioeconomic status, and marital status. However, 60% bipolar patients had family history of mental illness, whereas only 26.7% of RDD patients had a positive family history of mental illness and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.041). Sixteen percent of bipolar patients had medical illness, while only 6.7% of RDD patients had medical illness; this difference was not statistically significant. Forty-eight percent of bipolar patients and 93.3% of RDD patients had good treatment compliance and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.005). The total number of psychotic episodes were more in bipolar patients compared with RDD group (P=0.0001).
There was no difference between the two groups in the domain of self care. Twelve percent of bipolar patients had self care score ranging from mild to moderate, but none of RDD patients had impaired self care. Eighty four percent of bipolar patients had impairment in interpersonal activities, while majority (48%) scored for moderate impairment, but only 53.3% RDD patients had impairment in interpersonal activities. The difference in impairment in interpersonal activity was statistically significant (P=0.004). Seventy-six percent of the bipolar patients and 33% of RDD patients had impairment in communication and understanding; this difference was statistically significant (P=0.009). Sixty-four percent of bipolar patients had impairment in work, while only 6.7% of RDD patients had impairment in the domain work (P=0.011) .
Duration of illness was positively correlated with impairment in communication and understanding among BPAD patients. Severity of impairment in communication and understanding increases with increase in the duration of illness (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r=0.451, P=0.023). The severity of impairment in work, and the total disability score was increased with the duration of illness, and this relation was statistically significant (r=0.522, P=0.007; r=0.516, P=0.008).
The severity of impairment in interpersonal activities, communication and understanding, and work was higher in patients with more number of episodes (r=0.539, P=0.005; r=0.712, P=0.00001; r=0.53, P=0.006). The total score of disability also was found to be high in patients with more number of episodes .
Correlation of illness variables with disability domains
The severity of impairment in self care and work increased with the number of psychotic episodes (r=0.489, P=0.013; r=0.559, P=0.03). It was also found that the severity of impairment in interpersonal activity, communication and understanding, work as well as the total score of disability was increased with the duration of treatment. The total score for disability was more for bipolar patients (mean, 4.04) compared with RDD patients (mean, 0.3) and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0001).
No significant correlation was noticed between the domains of disability and other factors like age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, age of onset of illness, duration of last episode, family history, treatment compliance, period of remission, chronic medical illness, etc.