Diabetes. 2011 October; 60(10): 2624–2634.
© 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.
Genome-Wide Association Identifies Nine Common Variants Associated With Fasting Proinsulin Levels and Provides New Insights Into the Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes
1Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
2Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
3National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts
4Oxford Centre for Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K.
5Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K.
6MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, U.K.
7Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Endocrinology, University Hospital and Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
8Boston University Data Coordinating Center, Boston, Massachusetts
9BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, U.K.
10Université Lille-Nord de France, Lille, France
11CNRS UMR 8199, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France
12Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland
13Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, U.K.
14Metabolic Disease Group, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, U.K.
15Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts
16Center for Human Genetic Research and Diabetes Research Center (Diabetes Unit), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
17Department of Dietetics-Nutrition, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece
18Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K.
19Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
20Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
21CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Madrid, Spain
22Fundación Investigación Biomédica del Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain
23Heart Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon
24MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, U.K.
25National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
26Helsinki University Central Hospital, Unit of General Practice, Helsinki, Finland
27Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland
28Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
29Experimental Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
30Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
31Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter, U.K.
32Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
33Malmska Municipal Health Care Center and Hospital, Jakobstad, Finland
34Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
35Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
36INSERM UMR 859, Lille, France
37Department of Medicine, University of Kuopio and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
38First Department of Propaedeutic Medicine, Laiko General Hospital, Athens University Medical School, Athens, Greece
39National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
40Institute of Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle, U.K.
41Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
42Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, and Research Program of Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
43Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle, U.K.
44Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
45Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, U.K.
46Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K.
47Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.
48Center for Non-Communicable Diseases Pakistan, Karachi, Pakistan
49Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, U.K.
50Cardiology, Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex, U.K.
51National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, U.K.
52Department of Internal Medicine and CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, University of Pisa School of Medicine, Pisa, Italy
53Vaasa Health Care Center, Vaasa, Finland
54Department of Cardiovascular Research, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy
55Leibniz Institute for Arteriosclerosis Research, University of Münster, Münster, Germany
56Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, U.K.
57DRWF Human Islet Isolation Facility and Oxford Islet Transplant Programme, University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K.
58National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
59Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, U.K.
60General Medicine Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
61Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
62University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, U.K.
63Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
64Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
Received March 23, 2011; Accepted June 29, 2011.