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FIG. 1.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is fig-1.jpg

Photos illustrate an opening to a lava cave in a volcanic trench (A), the entrance to Four Windows Cave from the inside of the cave (B), a skylight in Four Windows Cave (C), a typical lava cave shape in El Malpais (D). All photos are from El Malpais National Monument and are copyright Kenneth Ingham; used with permission. Color images available online at

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