1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) N S H-, DHHS Publication No. SMA 05-4062. Office of Applied Studies; Rockville, MD: 2005. Results from the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
2. Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2006: Volume I, Secondary school students. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse; 2007. http://monitoringthefuture.org/ 3. Hibell B, Guttormsson U, Ahlstrom S, et al. The 2007 ESPAD Report -Substance Use Among Students in 35 European Countries. The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN); 2009. Available at: http://www.espad.org/espad-reports.
4. Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2009. Volume II: College students and adults ages 19–50 (NIH Publication No. 10-7585) Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse; 2010.
5. King KM, Chassin L. A prospective study of the effects of age of initiation of alcohol and drug use on young adult substance dependence. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2007;68:256–65. [PubMed] 6. Kandel DB, Yamaguchi K, Chen K. Stages of progression in drug involvement from adolescence to adulthood: further evidence for the gateway theory. J Stud Alcohol. 1992;53:447–57. [PubMed] 7. Grant BF. Age at smoking onset and its association with alcohol consumption and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. J Subst Abuse. 1998;10:59–73. [PubMed] 8. Chen CY, Storr CL, Anthony JC. Early-onset drug use and risk for drug dependence problems. Addict Behav. 2009;34:319–22. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 9. Lynskey M, Hall W. The effects of adolescent cannabis use on educational attainment: a review. Addiction. 2000;95:1621–30. [PubMed] 10. Chatterji P. Illicit drug use and educational attainment. Health Econ. 2006;15:489–511. [PubMed] 11. Lemstra M, Bennett NR, Neudorf C, et al. A meta-analysis of marijuana and alcohol use by socio-economic status in adolescents aged 10–15 years. Can J Public Health. 2008;99:172–7. [PubMed] 12. Merline AC, O’Malley PM, Schulenberg JE, Bachman JG, Johnston LD. Substance use among adults 35 years of age: prevalence, adulthood predictors, and impact of adolescent substance use. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:96–102. [PubMed] 13. Fergusson DM, Woodward LJ, Horwood LJ. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric adjustment in late adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1998;55:721–727. [PubMed] 14. Biglan A, Duncan TE, Ary DV, Smolkowski K. Peer and parental influences on adolescent tobacco use. J Behav Med. 1995;18:315–30. [PubMed] 15. Hill KG, Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Abbott RD, Guo J. Family influences on the risk of daily smoking initiation. J Adolesc Health. 2005;37:202–10. [PubMed] 16. Pilgrim CC, Schulenberg JE, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Johnston LD. Mediators and moderators of parental involvement on substance use: a national study of adolescents. Prev Sci. 2006;7:75–89. [PubMed] 17. Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Lynskey MT. Parental Separation, Adolescent Psychopathology, and Problem Behaviors. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 1994;33:1122–1131. [PubMed] 18. Burt SA, Barnes AR, McGue M, Iacono WG. Parental divorce and adolescent delinquency: ruling out the impact of common genes. Dev Psychol. 2008;44:1668–77. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
19. Kandel DB. On Process of Peer Influences in Adolescent Drug Use: A Developmental Perspective. In: Brook DW, Lettieri DJ, editors. Alcohol and substance abuse in adolescence. Routledge: 1985.
20. Wang J, Simons-Morton BG, Farhat T, Luk JW. Socio-Demographic Variability in Adolescent Substance Use: Mediation by Parents and Peers. Prev Sci 2009 [PMC free article] [PubMed]
21. Bachman JG, O’Malley PM, Schulenberg JE, et al. The education-drug use connection: How successes and failures in school relate to adolescent smoking, drinking, drug use, and delinquency. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associations/Taylor & Francis; 2008.
22. Bryant AL, Schulenberg JE, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Johnston LD. How academic achievement, attitudes, and behaviors relate to the course of substance use during adolescence: a six-year multi-wave national longitudinal study. Journal of Research on Adolescence. 2003;13:361–397.
23. Krueger RF, Hicks BM, Patrick CJ, et al. Etiologic connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and personality: modeling the externalizing spectrum. J Abnorm Psychol. 2002;111:411–24. [PubMed] 24. Iacono WG, Carlson SR, Taylor J, Elkins IJ, McGue M. Behavioral disinhibition and the development of substance-use disorders: findings from the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Dev Psychopathol. 1999;11:869–900. [PubMed] 25. Iacono WG, Malone SM, McGue M. Behavioral disinhibition and the development of early-onset addiction: common and specific influences. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2008;4:325–48. [PubMed] 26. Keyes MA, Iacono WG, McGue M. Early onset problem behavior, young adult psychopathology, and contextual risk. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2007;10:45–53. [PubMed] 27. Donohew RL, Hoyle RH, Clayton RR, et al. Sensation seeking and drug use by adolescents and their friends: models for marijuana and alcohol. J Stud Alcohol. 1999;60:622–31. [PubMed] 28. Galea S, Hall C, Kaplan GA. Social epidemiology and complex system dynamic modelling as applied to health behaviour and drug use research. Int J Drug Policy. 2009;20:209–16. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 29. Gilmore I. Action needed to tackle a global drinking problem. Lancet. 2009;373:2174–2176. [PubMed] 30. Wells JE, Degenhardt L, Bohnert KM, et al. Geographical clustering of cannabis use: results from the New Zealand Mental Health Survey 2003–2004. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;99:309–316. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 31. Bachman JG, Johnson LD, O’Malley PM. Explaining recent increases in students’ marijuana use: impacts of perceived risks and disapproval, 1976 through 1996. Am J Public Health. 1998;88:887–92. [PubMed] 32. Bachman JG, Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Humphrey RH. Explaining the recent decline in marijuana use: differentiating the effects of perceived risks, disapproval, and general lifestyle factors. J Health Soc Behav. 1988;29:92–112. [PubMed] 33. Nelson TF, Xuan Z, Lee H, Weitzman ER, Wechsler H. Persistence of heavy drinking and ensuing consequences at heavy drinking colleges. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2009;70:726–34. [PubMed]
34. Fishbein M, Ajzen I. Beliefs, attitude, intention, and behavior. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley; 1975.
35. Jessor R. Problem-Behavior Theory, Psychosocial Development, and Adolescent Problem Drinking. Br J Addict. 1987;82:331–342. [PubMed]
36. Baranowski T, Perry CL, Parcel GS. How individuals, environments, and health behaviors interact: Social Cognitive Theory. In: Glanz K, Lewis FM, Rimer BK, editors. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practive. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc; 1997.
37. Strecher VJ, Rosenstock IM. The Health Belief Model. In: Glanz K, Lewis FM, Rimer BK, editors. Health Behavior and Health Eduction: Theory, Research and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1997.
38. Dembo R, Blount WR, Schmeidler J, Burgos W. Perceived environmental drug use risk and the correlates of early drug use or nonuse among inner-city youths: the motivated actor. Int J Addict. 1986;21:977–1000. [PubMed] 39. Blount WR, Dembo R. The effect of perceived neighborhood setting on self-reported tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among inner-city minority junior high school youth. Int J Addict. 1984;19:175–98. [PubMed] 40. Nurco DN, Kinlock T, O’Grady K, Lerner M, Hanlon TE. Perceptions of social pathology in the neighborhood and the etiology of narcotic addiction. A retrospective study. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1996;184:35–42. [PubMed] 41. Yarnold BM, Patterson V. Marijuana use among Miami’s adolescents, 1992. J Health Soc Policy. 1998;10:65–79. [PubMed] 42. Perkins HW, Haines MP, Rice R. Misperceiving the college drinking norm and related problems: a nationwide study of exposure to prevention information, perceived norms and student alcohol misuse. J Stud Alcohol. 2005;66:470–8. [PubMed] 43. Ahern J, Galea S, Hubbard A, Midanik L, Syme SL. "Culture of drinking" and individual problems with alcohol use. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167:1041–9. [PubMed] 44. Barrientos-Gutierrez T, Gimeno D, Mangione TW, Harrist RB, Amick BC. Drinking social norms and drinking behaviours: a multilevel analysis of 137 workgroups in 16 worksites. Occup Environ Med. 2007;64:602–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 45. O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Johnston LD. Period, age, and cohort effects on substance use among American youth, 1976–82. Am J Public Health. 1984;74:682–8. [PubMed] 46. O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Johnston LD. Period, Age, and Cohort Effects on Substance Use among Young Americans: A Decade of Change, 1976–1986. Am J Public Health. 1988;78:1315–1321. [PubMed] 47. Johnson RA, Gerstein DR. Age, period, and cohort effects in marijuana and alcohol incidence: United States females and males, 1961–1990. Subst Use Misuse. 2000;35:925–48. [PubMed] 48. Kerr WC, Greenfield TK, Bond J, Ye Y, Rehm J. Age-period-cohort influences on trends in past year marijuana use in the US from the 1984, 1990, 1995 and 2000 National Alcohol Surveys. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;86:132–8. [PubMed] 49. Mehmedic Z, Chandra S, Slade D, et al. Potency trends of Delta9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:1209–17. [PubMed] 50. Diez Roux AV. Neighborhoods and health: where are we and were do we go from here? Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2007;55:13–21. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
51. Raudenbush SW, Sampson R. Ecometrics: toward a science of assessing ecological settings, with application to the systematic social observations of neighborhoods. Sociol Methodol. 1999;29
52. Duncan GJ, Raudenbush SW. Assessing the effects of context in studies of child and youth development. Educat Psychol. 1999;34:29–41.
53. Ostroff C, Kinicki AJ, Clark MA. Substantive and Operational Issues of Response Bias Across Levels of Analysis: An Example of Climate-Satisfaction Relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2002;87:355–368. [PubMed] 54. Reither EN, Hauser RM, Yang Y. Do birth cohorts matter? Age-period-cohort analyses of the obesity epidemic in the United States. Social Science and Medicine. 2009;69:1439–48. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
55. Yang Y, Land KC. A Mixed Models Approach to Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Repeated Cross-Section Surveys: Trends in Verbal Test Scores. In: Stolzenberg RM, editor. Sociological Methodology. Boston: Blackwell Publishing; 2006.
56. Yang Y, Land KC. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Repeated Cross-Section Surveys: Fixed or Random Effects? American Sociological Review. 2008;36:297–326.
57. Muthen LK, Muthen BO. Mplus user’s guide. 5. Los Angeles, CA: 2009.
58. Brown TN, Schulenberg JE, Bachman JG, O’Malley PM, Johnston LD. Are risk and protective factors for substance use consistent across historical time? National data from twenty-two consecutive cohorts of high school seniors. Prev Sci. 2001;2:29–43. [PubMed] 59. Patrick ME, Schulenberg JE, O’Malley PM, et al. Age-related changese in reasons for using alcohol and marijuana from ages 18 to 30 in a national sample. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors in press. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
60. Schulenberg JE, Patrick ME. Historical and developmental patterns of alcohol and drug use among college students: framing the problem. In: White HR, Rabiner D, editors. College Student Drinking and Drug Use: Multiple Perspectives on a Complex Problem. New York: Guildford; in press.
61. Bachman JG, Johnston L, O’Malley PM. How changes in drug use are linked to perceived risks and disapproval: Evidence from national studies that youth and young adults respond to information about the consequences of drug use. In: Donohew H, Sypher H, Bukowski W, editors. Persuasive Communication and drug abuse prevention. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1991. pp. 133–156.
62. Juvonen J, Martino SC, Ellickson PL, Longshore D. "But Others Do It!" Do Misperceptions of Schoolmate Alcohol and Marijuana Use Predict Subsequent Drug Use Among Young Adolescents? Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 2007;37:740–758.
63. Durkheim E. The Rules of Sociological Method. New York: The Free Press; 1938.
64. Cullen FT. Rethinking Crime and Deviance Theory: The Emergence of a Structuring Tradition. Totowa, NJ: Roman & Allenheld; 1983.
65. Asch SE. Social Psychology. Upper Sadle River, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1952.
66. Sampson JR, Raudenbush SW, Earls F. Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science. 1997;277:918–924. [PubMed]
67. Kawachi I, Berkman L. Social cohesion, social capital, and health. In: Berkman L, Kawachi I, editors. Social Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press; 2000. pp. 174–190.
68. Ryder NB. The cohort as a concept in the study of social change. Am Sociol Rev. 1965;30:843–61. [PubMed]
69. Alwin DF, McCammon RJ. Rethinking Generations. Research in Human Development. 2007;4:219–237.
70. Winship C, Harding DJ. A Mechanism-Based Approach to the Identification of Age-Period-Cohort Models. American Sociological Review. 2008;36:362–401.
71. Bandura A, Ross D, Ross SA. Transmission of agressions through imitation of agressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 1961;63:575–582. [PubMed]
72. Bandura A. Social Learning Theory. Prentice Hall; 1977.
73. Bandura A. Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2001;52:1–26. [PubMed]
74. Akers RL, Lee G. A longitudinal test of social learning theory: adolescent smoking. Journal of Drug Issues. 1996;26:317–343.
75. Werch CE, Pappas DM, Carlson JM, et al. Results of a social norm intervention to prevent binge drinking among first-year residential college students. J Am Coll Health. 2000;49:85–92. [PubMed] 76. Werch CE, DiClemente CC. A multi-component stage model for matching drug prevention strategies and messages to youth stage of use. Health Education Research. 1994;9:37–46. [PubMed]
77. Botvin GJ, Schinke SP, Epstein JA, Diaz T, Botvin EM. Effectiveness of culturally-focused and generic skills training approaches to alcohol and drug abuse prevention among minority adolescents: two-year follow-up results. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 1995;9:183–194.
78. Akers RL, Krohn MD, Lanza-Kaduce L, Radosevich M. Social learning and deviant behavior: a specific test of a general theory. Am Sociol Rev. 1979;44:636–55. [PubMed]
79. Johnston LD. Toward a theory of drug epidemics. In: Donohew L, Sypher HE, Bukoski WJ, editors. Persuasive communication and drug abuse prevention. Hillsdale, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum; 1991. pp. 93–131.
80. Chaix B, Billaudeau N, Thomas F, et al. Neighborhood effects on health: correcting bias from neighborhood effects on participation. Epidemiology. 2011;22:18–26. [PubMed] 81. Kuntsche E, Jordan MD. Adolescent alcohol and cannabis use in relation to peer and school factors. Results of multilevel analyses. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;84:167–74. [PubMed] 82. Kumar R, O’Malley PM, Johnston LD, Schulenberg JE, Bachman JG. Effects of school-level norms on student substance use. Prev Sci. 2002;3:105–24. [PubMed] 83. Musick K, Seltzer JA, Schwartz CR. Neighborhood Norms and Substance Use among Teens. Soc Sci Res. 2008;37:138–155. [PMC free article] [PubMed]