Data in this manuscript were collected by the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) with centers (Principal Investigators) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (Joseph B. Margolick, Lisa P. Jacobson), Howard Brown Health Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, and Cook County Bureau of Health Services (John P. Phair, Steven M. Wolinsky), University of California, Los Angeles (Roger Detels), and University of Pittsburgh (Charles R. Rinaldo). Web site located at http://www.statepi.jhsph.edu/macs/macs.html
The members of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study are M. Battegay, E. Bernasconi, J. Böni, HC. Bucher, Ph. Bürgisser, A. Calmy, S. Cattacin, M. Cavassini, R. Dubs, M. Egger, L. Elzi, M. Fischer, M. Flepp, A. Fontana, P. Francioli (President of the SHCS, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, CH-1011- Lausanne), H. Furrer (Chairman of the Clinical and Laboratory Committee), C. Fux, M. Gorgievski, H. Günthard (Chairman of the Scientific Board), H. H. Hirsch, B. Hirschel, I. Hösli, Ch. Kahlert, L. Kaiser, U. Karrer, C. Kind, Th. Klimkait, B. Ledergerber, G. Martinetti, B. Martinez, N. Müller, D. Nadal, M. Opravil, F. Paccaud, G. Pantaleo, A. Rauch, S. Regenass, M. Rickenbach (Head of Data Center), C. Rudin (Chairman of the Mother & Child Substudy), P. Schmid, D. Schultze, J. Schüpbach, R. Speck, P. Taffé, P. Tarr, A. Telenti, A. Trkola, P. Vernazza, R. Weber, S. Yerly.
We wish to thank Nadine Doppler from the institute for Medical Microbiology for technical assistance.
This work was sponsored in part by grants from the Neurologic AIDS Research Consortium (U01 NS322228
to D. C. and I. J. K., R01 NS 041198, NS 047029
, and K24 NS 060950
); Johns Hopkins NIMH Center (5P30MH075673
to A. N.); and a Biogen Idec research grant (to I. J. K.). The MACS is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with additional supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute (UO1-AI-35042, 5-MO1-RR-00052 [GCRC], UO1-AI-35043, UO1-AI-35039, UO1-AI-35040, UO1-AI-35041). This study has been supported by the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SHCS project Nr. 512).
Potential conflict of interest.
D. C. has received fees for the following: consultancy from Biogen Idec, Genentech, Millennium, Genzyme, BMS, and Pfizer; expert testimony from Biogen Idec; payment for lectures or speakers bureaus from GSK, Millennium, Biogen; development of educational presentations from Millennium; travel/meeting expenses from Biogen Idec. A. N. has received fees for consultancy from Biogen and Diogenix. All other authors report no potential conflicts.
All authors have submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Conflicts that the editors consider relevant to the content of the manuscript have been disclosed.