Selection of human cytomegalovirus variants in the presence of ganciclovir or foscarnet led to 18 DNA polymerase mutations, 14 of which had not been previously studied. Using bacterial artificial chromosome technology, each of these mutations was individually transferred into the genome of a reference strain. Following reconstitution of infectious viral stocks, each mutant was assessed for its drug susceptibility and growth kinetics in cell culture. Computer-assisted three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the polymerase was also used to position each of the mutations in one of four proposed structural domains and to predict their influence on structural stability of the protein. Among the 10 DNA polymerase mutations selected with ganciclovir, 7 (P488R, C539R, L545S, V787L, V812L, P829S, and L862F) were associated with ganciclovir resistance, whereas 2 (F595I and V946L) conferred only foscarnet resistance. Among the eight mutations selected with foscarnet, only two (T552N and S585A) conferred foscarnet resistance, whereas four (N408D, K500N, L802V, and L957F) had an impact on ganciclovir susceptibility. Surprisingly, the combination of mutations, some of which were not associated with resistance for a specific antiviral, resulted in increasing resistance effects. 3D modeling suggested that none of the mutated residues were directly involved in the polymerase catalytic site but rather had an influence on drug susceptibility by modifying the structural flexibility of the protein. Our study significantly adds to the number of DNA polymerase mutations conferring in vitro drug resistance and emphasizes the point that evaluation of individual mutations may not accurately reflect the phenotype conferred by multiple mutations.