Of the 26 patients enrolled, 6 were withdrawn (4 whose drug therapies were altered, 1 who took antioxidants, and 1 who was noncompliant to the diets). The mean BMI of the remaining subjects (10 women, 10 men) was 28.3 ± 3.5 kg/m2, fasting glucose was 122 ± 33 mg/dL, and HbA1c was 6.8 ± 0.65%. After randomization, there were no significant differences between the groups (Pasta+/Pasta− vs. Pasta−/Pasta+) in these measures.
Plasma isoflavones were undetectable at baseline and when consuming Pasta−. When consuming Pasta+, serum daidzein, glycitein, and genistein concentrations ranged 12–255 nmol/L, 11–128 nmol/L, and 15–167 nmol/L, respectively, consistent with previously reported data (4
Brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation increased ~5% after consuming Pasta+ and decreased with Pasta− ( and Supplementary Data
); this difference was highly significant (P
= 0.0005). Consistent with improved endothelial function was a significant reduction in systolic (P
= 0.026) and diastolic (P
= 0.017) blood pressures. Pasta+ lowered systolic blood pressure from 133 ± 1 at baseline to 126 ± 12 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure from 79 ± 9 at baseline to 73 ± 10 mmHg. Pasta− had no effect on blood pressure.
Figure 1 Box plots showing changes from baseline in brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, TAC in plasma, plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations, plasma GSH concentration, and serum homocysteine concentration measured (more ...)
The effect of the two pastas on serum total cholesterol was in the opposite direction, with the difference being significant (P = 0.025). Favorable, albeit not significant, differential trends were observed with Pasta+ on serum LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels.
Several markers of oxidative stress improved after consuming Pasta+ ( and Supplementary Data
). Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) increased significantly (P
= 0.0002) in comparison with Pasta−. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentration was reduced (P
= 0.001) and glutathione (GSH) increased (P
= 0.0003). Consistent with these changes was a reduction in lipid peroxidation, as observed by a decrease in plasma oxidized LDL cholesterol (P
= 0.009). Serum homocysteine concentration was lower (P
= 0.017) after Pasta+ compared with Pasta−, but there was no effect of either pasta on serum cysteine or interleukin-6 levels. At baseline, all patients were in good glycemic control and, consequently, neither pasta influenced plasma insulin, glucose, or HbA1c