Ghana Kalpana, a second derivative preparation of Kwatha Kalpana, is one of the extraction methods in which water soluble material is extracted by Kwatha method and reheated till it is converted into concentrated solid form.
The procedure adopted to convert Dashanga Kwatha Ghana
into tablet form was wet granulation method of tablet preparation. Gum acacia was added as the binding agent (1%) of the derived Ghana
, i.e. 70 g in powder form along with the 10% powder of Dashanga Kwatha
. Its addition imparts cohesiveness and ensures that the tablet remains intact after compression as well as imparts desired hardness and size.[23
] However, it has the disadvantage of being variable in its composition based on its natural origin, and it is usually fairly contaminated with bacteria. This material has the advantage of being a low-cost adhesive. Drying of granules in hot air oven was carried out at 45–50°C for 6 hours to reduce microbial proliferation. Granules were prepared by passing through sieve no. 16. In the present study, 1% talc was used as the lubricant. Since lubrication is basically a coating process, the finer the particle size of the lubricant, the more effective the lubricant is likely to be. With the help of tablet punching machine, these granules were compressed into tablets with a target weight of 250 mg.
The organoleptic parameters form the basic criteria for selecting a raw drug and also to confirm the finished product. Texture of tablets was smooth indicating the surface uniformity without cracks. This is the primary character to assess the quality of tablets. Color was brownish, taste was bitter and odor was characteristic due to the specific properties of the various ingredients .
The pH conventionally represents the acidity and alkalinity; pH of the Kwatha and tablet showed to be weak acidic in nature.
Loss on drying indicates the moisture content; in the present sample, it was 0.1%.
Ash value depends upon the inorganic substances present in the particular drug; this parameter has importance in quality control and standardization of drugs. The higher the inorganic substances present in drugs, more will be the ash value. Here, the ash value was 12.0 ± 0.30% which may be due to the extensive heating process involved in preparation of this formulation .
Various components have their solubility in particular media. In this study, soluble principles of the samples were seen in water and methanol; in water, it was 49.6% and in methanol, it was 40%. In both the media, solubility of sample was more as the sample itself which was used to prepare the tablet was derived from water extractive. In the solubility test, increase in water soluble extractive was found, which depicts its more bioavailability in water medium .
Average hardness was 2.75 kg/cm2. Disintegration time was 33 min and friability was not more than 0.92% on an average . Physico-chemical analysis of Dashanga Kwatha Ghana tablet was done for the quality control purpose. Qualitative tests are used to detect the presence of functional groups, which play a very important role in the expression of biological activity. The present study reveals the presence of tannins, mucilage, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and carbohydrates in the formulation, whereas sterols/terpenoids and starch were found to be absent .
Preliminary HPTLC profile of Dashanga Kwatha Ghana tablet has been developed [Figures –]. This can be considered as the reference standard for validating this formulation in future [Tables and ].
Densitogram of Dashanga Kwatha Ghana tablets (A – 254 nm, B – 366 nm)
Photograph chromplate (A – 254 nm, B – 366 nm)
Rf values of HPTLC analysis of methanolic extract at short UV (254 nm)
HPTLC profile of Dashanga Kwatha Ghana tablets (A – 254 nm, B – 366 nm)
Heavy metals were not detected , thus showing the purity of the raw drugs and also the finished product. This also indicates quality control maintenance during pharmaceutical preparation.
Medicinal plant materials are liable to be affected by pesticide residues which accumulate from agricultural practices of spraying, treating soils during cultivation and through the administration of fumigants during storage. Organophosphorous pesticides were found below the detection limit, which is a clear indication of quality land practices and safe storage of raw drugs .
Medicinal plant matters normally carry bacteria and moulds often originating in soil in high numbers. In the present formulation, the microbial count was within permissible limits[24
] , which indicates the proper hygiene norms followed during the preparation of formulation and packing.