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Logo of bmcpsycBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Psychiatry
 
BMC Psychiatry. 2011; 11: 116.
Published online Jul 25, 2011. doi:  10.1186/1471-244X-11-116
PMCID: PMC3155481
Cognitive behaviour therapy in medication-treated adults with ADHD and persistent Symptoms: A randomized controlled trial
Brynjar Emilsson,1,2 Gisli Gudjonsson,1 Jon F Sigurdsson,2 Gisli Baldursson,3 Emil Einarsson,2 Halldora Olafsdottir,2 and Susan Youngcorresponding author1
1King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London, UK
2Mental Health Services, Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland, Hringbraut, Reykjavik, Iceland
3Child- and Adolescent Psychiatry, Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland, Dalbraut 12, Reykjavik, Iceland
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Brynjar Emilsson: brynjare/at/landspitali.is; Gisli Gudjonsson: gisli.gudjonsson/at/kcl.ac.uk; Jon F Sigurdsson: jonfsig/at/landspitali.is; Gisli Baldursson: gislib/at/landspitali.is; Emil Einarsson: emile/at/landspitali.is; Halldora Olafsdottir: haldola/at/landspitali.is; Susan Young: susan.young/at/kcl.ac.uk
Received March 14, 2011; Accepted July 25, 2011.
Abstract
Background
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is not fully treated by psychopharmacological treatment alone. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate a newly developed cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) based group programme, the Reasoning and Rehabilitation for ADHD Youths and Adults (R&R2ADHD), using a randomized controlled trial.
Methods
54 adults with ADHD already receiving psychopharmacological treatment were randomly allocated to an experimental (CBT/MED) treatment condition (n = 27) and a 'treatment as usual' (TAU/MED) control condition (n = 27) that did not receive the CBT intervention. The outcome measures were obtained before treatment (baseline), after treatment and at three month follow-up and included ADHD symptoms and impairments rated by independent assessors, self-reported current ADHD symptoms, and comorbid problems.
Results
The findings suggested medium to large treatment effects for ADHD symptoms, which increased further at three month follow-up. Additionally, comorbid problems also improved at follow-up with large effect sizes.
Conclusions
The findings give support for the effectiveness of R&R2ADHD in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid problems, an improving functions associated with impairment. The implications are that the benefits of R&R2ADHD are multifaceted and that combined psychopharmacological and CBT based treatments may add to and improve pharmacological interventions.
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