Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Membrane glycoprotein PC-1 (also termed ENPP1) is a direct insulin receptor inhibitor, and certain polymorphisms of the ENPP1/PC-1 gene have been associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and diabetic complications.
We examined the effect of 3 ENPP1/PC-1 variants (K121Q, rs1044498, and IVS20delT-11, rs1799774, and A→G+1044TGA, rs7754561) on plasma triglyceride levels in 1112 subjects of non-Hispanic American white European ancestry.
Two of the ENPP1/PC-1 variants—A→G+1044TGA (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54–1.82, P = 0.002) and IVS20delT-11 (OR 1.41, 95% CI, 1.08–1.84, P = 0.012)—were significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia. Haplotype analyses also revealed an association with hypertriglyceridemia. In the variant analyses and in the haplotype analysis, the associations with hypertriglyceridemia were observed in male but not female subjects. Interestingly, the more widely studied K121Q ENPP1/PC-1 variant was not associated with hypertriglyceridemia in any group or subgroup analysis.
In the present study, we find that genetic variants of the ENPP1/PC-1 gene are associated with hypertriglyceridemia in male subjects, and may contribute to the development of the insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome in this population.