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From:
Published online 2011 July 14. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2011.00044

Table 1

Proposed parameters for anomalous venous outflow (Zamboni et al., 2009a).

Presence of two of five TCCS–ECD parameters meets screening criteria for anomalous venous outflow.
Reflux in the IJVs and/or VVs in sitting and supine posture
Reflux in the DCVs
High-resolution B-mode evidence of IJV stenosis
Flow not Doppler-detectable in the IJVs and or VVs
Reverted postural control of the main cerebral venous outflow pathways

TCCS, transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography; ECD, high-resolution echocolor Doppler; IJV, internal jugular vein; VV, vertebral vein; DCV, deep cerebral vein.