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|Presence of two of five TCCS–ECD parameters meets screening criteria for anomalous venous outflow.|
|Reflux in the IJVs and/or VVs in sitting and supine posture|
|Reflux in the DCVs|
|High-resolution B-mode evidence of IJV stenosis|
|Flow not Doppler-detectable in the IJVs and or VVs|
|Reverted postural control of the main cerebral venous outflow pathways|
TCCS, transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography; ECD, high-resolution echocolor Doppler; IJV, internal jugular vein; VV, vertebral vein; DCV, deep cerebral vein.