shows the correlation (phi-coefficient) between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts for each gender/age group in both the NSA and NSA-R. All correlations were statistically significant, with a small correlation for 12- to 14–year-old boys in 1995, large correlations for 15- to 17-year-old girls in both samples, and moderate correlations for all other groups. The correlation between suicidal ideation and attempt was significantly lower in 1995 than 2005 for 12- to 14-year-old boys (Ψ = .26 for 1995, Ψ = .47 for 2005, z = − 5.39, p < .001). No other significant differences between 1995 and 2005 correlations were observed.
Correlations Between Suicidal Ideation and Attempts by Age/Gender Subgroup for NSA and NSA-R
Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in 1995 Compared to 2005
The prevalence of suicidal ideation significantly declined from 12.7% in 1995 to 10.9% in 2005, χ2(1, N = 7,625) = 6.11, p = .05. Overall, girls reported more suicidal ideation compared to boys. The decrease in prevalence from 1995 to 2005 was significant for boys (9.4% to 7.6%, a 19.1% decline), χ2(1, N = 3,909) = 4.00, p = .05, but not statistically significant for girls (16.2% to 14.3%, an 11.7% decline), χ2(1, N = 3,718) = 2.55, p = .11. When considering each gender broken down into younger (ages 12–14) and older (ages 15–17) adolescents (see ), prevalence of suicidal ideation was highest for older adolescent girls, with a nonstatistically significant 14% decline observed within this group from 1995 to 2005 (22.3% to 19.2%), χ2(1, N = 1,826) = 2.65, p = .10. Older adolescent boys reported the second highest prevalence of suicidal ideation, with a nonsignificant 6% decline within this group from 1995 to 2005 (12.0% to 11.3%), χ2(1, N = 1,941) = 0.26, p = .61. Next, the prevalence for younger adolescent girls was 10.4% in 1995 and 9.6% in 2005, a nonsignificant 8% decline between the time periods, χ2(1, N = 1,879) = 0.34, p = .56. Finally, younger adolescent boys showed a significant 44% decrease in suicidal ideation from 1995 (6.8%) to 2005 (3.8%), χ2(1, N = 1,964) = 8.73, p <.01.
Prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation from 1995 to 2005 for each gender/age subgroup.
The prevalence estimates for suicide attempts remained stable from 1995 (3.0%) to 2005 (3.0%). This prevalence estimate was comparable over time for boys (1.0% to 1.5%) and girls (5.2% to 4.5%) with no significant differences between 1995 and 2005 estimates. When considering each of the four age/gender subgroups (i.e., 12- to 14-year-old boys, 12- to 14-year-old girls, 15- to 17-year-old boys, 15- to 17-year-old girls), no significant differences between 1995 and 2005 emerged in prevalence of suicide attempts for any of the subgroups (all ps >.10). Prevalence estimates for younger boys were 0.48% and 0.87% for 1995 and 2005, respectively; 2.7% in 1995 and 2.0% in 2005 for younger girls; 1.6% in 1995 and 2.0% in 2005 for older adolescent boys; and 7.7% in 1995 and 7.1% in 2005 for older girls.
Risk Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation
The following variables were entered for each logistic regression analysis: gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, lifetime alcohol abuse diagnosis, lifetime nonexperimental drug use, direct violence exposure, indirect violence exposure, PTSD diagnosis, and MDE diagnosis. Correlations among the variables for each sample are presented in (NSA) and (NSA-R). Risk factor data for suicidal ideation are presented in for the NSA sample and for the NSA-R sample. A direct comparison of the ORs revealed only one significant difference between the NSA and NSA-R predictors, with Asian American adolescents more likely to report suicidal ideation in the 1995 sample as compared to the 2005 sample (z = 2.12, p <.05), OR1995 = 1.88 vs. OR2005 = 0.40). However, it should be noted that Asian American race was not significantly associated with suicidal ideation in either of the two samples. No other significant differences between the NSA and NSA-R were observed, suggesting that the remainder of the variables in the 1995 sample predictor set were not significantly different from the 2005 sample predictor set in strength of association with the dependent variable.
Correlations Among Study Variables (NSA)
Correlations Among Study Variables (NSA-R)
Risk Factors for Suicidal Ideation in the 1995 NSA
Risk Factors for Suicidal Ideation in 2005 NSA–R
Risk Factors Associated with Suicide Attempt
An identical predictor set was used to identify variables associated with increased risk of attempting suicide. Risk factor data for suicide attempts are presented in for the NSA sample and for the NSA-R sample. A direct comparison of ORs was conducted. However, no significant differences were observed between the ORs of the 1995 sample and that of the 2005 sample (all z scores <1.96), suggesting that despite predictive differences (with respect to statistical significance) within the respective predictor sets, none of the predictor variables differed in predictive strength between the samples.
Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts in the 1995 NSA
Risk Factors for Suicide Attempt in the 2005 NSA-R