This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health and the NICHD. Participating NICHD NRN sites collected data and transmitted them to RTI International, the data-coordinating center for the network, which stored, managed, and analyzed the data for this study. On behalf of the NRN, Drs Das (PI) and Poole, and Mr McDonald (statistician) had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and accuracy of the data analysis.
The following investigators, in addition to those listed as authors, participated in this study: NRN Steering Committee Chair Alan H. Jobe, MD, PhD, University of Cincinnati (1996–2006), and Michael S. Caplan, MD, University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine (2006-present); Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island (U10 HD27904), William Oh, MD, Betty R. Vohr, MD, Angelita Hensman, BSN, RNC, Theresa M. Leach, Med, CAES, Victoria E. Watson, MS, CAS, and Suzy Ventura; Case Western Reserve University Rainbow Infants and Children's Hospital (GCRC M01 RR80, U10 HD21364), Deanne Wilson-Costello, MD, Nancy S. Newman, BA, RN, and Bonnie S. Siner, RN; Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati Hospital, and Good Samaritan Hospital (GCRC M01 RR8084, U10 HD27853), Kurt Schibler, MD, Jean Steichen, MD, Kimberly Yolton, PhD, Barb Alexander, RN, Cathy Grisby, BSN, CCRC, Marcia Mersmann, RN, Holly Mincey, RN, Jody Shively, RN, and Teresa Gratton, PA; Duke University School of Medicine University Hospital, Alamance Regional Medical Center, and Durham Regional Hospital (GCRC M01 RR30, U10 HD40492), C. Michael Cotten, MD, Ricki Goldstein, MD, Kathy J. Auten, BS, Kimberly A. Fisher, PhD, FNP-BC, IBCLC, and Melody B. Lohmeyer, RN; Emory University Children's Health Care of Atlanta, Grady Memorial Hospital, and Emory Crawford Long Hospital (CTSA UL1 RR25008, GCRC M01 RR39, U10 HD27851), Ira Adams-Chapman, MD, David Carlton, MD, Lucky Jain, MD, and Ellen Hale, RN, BS; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Linda L. Wright, MD, Elizabeth M. McClure, Med, and Stephanie Wilson Archer, MA; Indiana University Indiana University Hospital, Methodist Hospital, Riley Hospital for Children, and Wishard Health Services (GCRC M01 RR750, U10 HD27856), James A. Lemons, MD, Anna M. Dusick, MD, Diana D. Appel, RN, BSN, Dianne Herron, RN, Lucy Miller, RN, BSN, CCRC, Leslie Richard, RN, and Leslie Dawn Wilson, BSN, CCRC; RTI International (U01 HD36790), Margaret Cunningham, BS, Betty Hastings, Elizabeth McClure, Med, Jamie Newman, Rebecca L. Perritt, MS, Carolyn Petrie Huitema, MS, and Kristin Zaterka-Baxter, RN; Stanford University Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (GCRC M01 RR70, U10 HD27880), David K. Stevenson, MD, Krisa P. Van Meurs, MD, Susan R. Hintz, MD, MS, and M. Bethany Ball, BS, CCRC; University of Alabama at Birmingham Health System and Children's Hospital of Alabama (GCRC M01 RR32, U10 HD34216), Myriam Peralta-Carcelen, MD, Monica V. Collins, RN, BSN, MaEd, Shirley S. Cosby, RN, BSN, and Vivien Phillips, RN, BSN; University of California, San Diego, Medical Center and Sharp Mary Birch Hospital for Women (U10 HD40461), Yvonne E. Vaucher, MD, MPH, Maynard R. Rasmussen, MD, David Kaegi, MD, Kathy Arnell, RN, Clarence Demetrio, RN, Martha G. Fuller, RN, MSN, Chris Henderson, RCP, CRTT, and Wade Rich, BS, RRT, CCRC; University of Miami Holtz Children's Hospital (GCRC M01 RR16587, U10 HD21397), Shahnaz Duara, MD, Charles R. Bauer, MD, Sylvia Hiriart-Fajardo, MD, Silvia M. Frade Eguaras, MA, Ruth Everett, RN, BSN, Susan Gauthier, MA, Kasey Hamlin-Smith, PhD, and Michelle Harwood, PhD; University of Rochester Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong (GCRC M01 RR44, U10 HD40521), Ronnie Guillet, MD, PhD, Gary J. Myers, MD, Erica Burnell, RN, Diane Hust, MS, RN, CS, Rosemary L. Jensen, Joan Merzbach, LMSW, Linda J. Reubens, RN, CCRC, Mary Rowan, RN, Kelly Yost, PhD, and Lauren Zwetsch, RN, MS, PNP; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Parkland Health and Hospital System and Children's Medical Center Dallas (GCRC M01 RR633, U10 HD40689), Abbot R. Laptook, MD, Charles R. Rosenfeld, MD, Pablo J. Sánchez, MD, R. Sue Broyles, MD, Roy J. Heyne, MD, Susie Madison, RN, Jackie F. Hickman, RN, Gaynelle Hensley, RN, Nancy A. Miller, RN, and Janet Morgan, RN; University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, and Lyndon Baines Johnson General Hospital/Harris County Hospital District (U10 HD21373), Jon E. Tyson, MD, MPH, Kathleen A. Kennedy, MD, MPH, Brenda H. Morris, MD, Pamela J. Bradt, MD, MPH, Patricia W. Evans, MD, Esther G. Akpa, RN, BSN, Patty A. Cluff, RN, Susan Dieterich, PhD, Claudia Y. Franco, RN, BSN, Terri Major-Kincade, MD, MPH, Robert E. Lasky, PhD, Anna E. Lis, RN, BSN, Georgia McDavid, RN, Nehal A. Parikh, DO, MS, Margaret L. Poundstone, RN, BSN, Sharon L. Wright, MT (ASCP), and Laura L. Whitely, MD; Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Forsyth Medical Center, and Brenner Children's Hospital (GCRC M01 RR7122, U10 HD40498), T. Michael O'Shea, MD, MPH, Robert G. Dillard, MD, Lisa Washburn, MD, Nancy Peters, RN, and Barbara Jackson, RN, BSN; Wayne State University Hutzel Women's Hospital and Children's Hospital of Michigan (U10 HD21385), Athina Pappas, MD, Yvette Johnson, MD, MPH, Geraldine Muran, RN, BSN, and Debbie Kennedy, RN; and Yale University Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital (CTSA UL1 RR24139, GCRC M01 RR6022, U10 HD27871), Patricia Gettner, RN, Monica Konstantino, RN, BSN, JoAnn Poulsen, RN, Elaine Romano, MSN, Janet Taft, RN, BSN, and Joanne Williams, RN, BSN.
We thank our medical and nursing colleagues and the infants and their parents who agreed to take part in this study.