Among the selected 824 subjects, 59.8% were male and 40.2% were female, 82.2% were married and 17.8% were unmarried, age ranged from 20-59 years (33.8 ± 8.2 years) and duration of employment from > 6 months to 29 years (14.4 ± 3.21 years). Of the total, 100 HCWs had history of dental treatment, 98 had history of hospitalization, 31 had surgery in the past, 24 had been transfused and only one was intravenous drug user.
18 (2.18%) HCWs were found positive for HBV while HBV and HCV mixed infection was not detected in any HCW. Characteristics and distribution (%) of HBV positive and HBV negative are summarized in Table . Frequency of HBV-infection in nurses was 44.4%, 33.4% in technicians, 22.3% in assistant staff while no doctor and administrative staff was found positive. Significant association (P = 0.328) between HBV prevalence and five occupational categories were present (Figure ).
Distribution of HBV positive and HBV negative HCWs according to occupational categories.
As for personal data, neither gender (P = 1.000), nor marital status (P = 0.8575) were found responsible for any statistically significant differences in between HBV negative and HBV positive HCWs. However, a strong correlation was found with age (P = 0.0896), employment duration (P = 0.0001), dental treatment (P = 0.0155), hospitalization (P = 0.0013), surgery (P = 0.0004) and blood transfusion (P = 0.0001). All HCWs were aware of the importance of screening, but overall 24.5% HCWs were aware of their viral status and only four (22.3%) were aware of their seropositivity.
Overall, 572 HCWs were involved in a total of 729 occupational exposures during the past one year period service. Percentage breakdown was 47.3% in nurses, 31.3% in technicians, 13.1% in doctors and 8.2% in assistant staff. Regarding the activity involved in occupational exposure, drawing blood was the main contributor (i.e. 33.6%), followed by recapping of syringes (17%), disposal of used needles (13.3%), insertion of drip (12.6%), trash collection (9.7%), surgical procedure (4.3%), collision with sharp objects (4.1%), fluid splash (3.0%), cleaning instruments (1.8%) and others (0.5%) (Table ).
Analysis of risk factors of occupational exposure in HCWs
In this study, 605 (73.42%) HCWs had completed their vaccination regimen. Of which 83(13.7%) had been vaccinated before entering the hospital, while 522 (86.3%) received their vaccination after starting their job at the hospital. Regarding the vaccination status, highest coverage was found among doctors, followed by administrative staff, general and assistant staff, technicians and nurses. A significant difference in vaccine coverage in vaccination coverage was found between the doctors and all other categories (P= 0.0001) (Table ).
HCWs (%) and their HBV vaccination status
The most commonly cited reasons for no vaccination in HCWs found were unaffordability/ high costs (39.8%), work pressure (38.8%), negligence (20.9%) and unavailability (0.5%). Statistical analysis showed significant association between vaccinated verses non vaccinated coverage (P = 0.0005) and barriers to complete vaccination (P= 0.0001) (Figure ).
Analysis of risk factors against HBV vaccination coverage in HCWs.