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We have isolated clones containing the gene for tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) from a mouse genomic library. Four out of five clones containing the TNF-alpha gene also hybridized to a human lymphotoxin (TNF-beta) probe. We constructed a restriction enzyme cleavage map of a 6.4 kb region from one of the genomic clones. From partial sequencing data and hybridizations with exon-specific oligonucleotide probes, we conclude that this region contains the mouse TNF-alpha and TNF-beta genes in a tandem arrangement, that they are separated by only about 1100 bases, and that their intron-exon structure is very similar to that seen in man. We probed genomic blots of DNA from human/mouse hybrids containing single mouse chromosomes for the presence of the mouse TNF genes. The results show that the genes are located on mouse chromosome 17, which also contains the major histocompatibility complex. Therefore, both the mouse and the human TNF genes are tandemly arranged and located on the same chromosome as the MHC.