Of the 305 men eligible to participate, 109 (36%) were MOC and 196 (64%) were white. Of the MOC, 23 (21%) were African American, 36 (33%) were Latino, 22 (20%) Asians, 8 (7%) Alaskan Natives/Native Americans/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and 20 (18%) were mixed or other unspecified race. MOC differed from white participants in age, education, and income, but were similar in terms of recent and long-term STD history as well as numbers of male anal sex partners in the last 90 days (Table ). Among MOC, 93 (85%) and 97 (89%) attended the six and 12 month visits, respectively, as compared to 186 (95%) and 182 (93%) of the white participants. The study design and flow of participants through the trial is presented in Fig. [2
Comparison of the characteristics of white MSM and MSM of color study participants at baseline
Trial participant recruitment, randomization, and retention
Among MOC, PCC and UC participants reported comparable levels of high-risk sex at baseline (Table , P = 0.62). At the six month follow-up, the mean number of episodes of high-risk sex among MOC in the PCC group dropped from 5.1 to 1.6 while there was little change in the UC group (4.2 at baseline and 3.9 at six months). At the 12 month follow-up, the mean number of UAI episodes was stable among the MOC PCC participants (1.8) and declined significantly among the MOC in the UC arm (2.1). The treatment effect among MOC was significant overall (P = 0.049) and at six months (P = 0.02), but not at 12 months (P = 0.60), with borderline evidence that the effect was weaker at 12 than at six months (P = 0.13). We repeated this analysis among African American and Latino men separately and found essentially the same pattern (data not shown).
Mean number of episodes unprotected anal intercourse with a non-primary partner of HIV discordant or unknown serostatus in the preceding 90 days, intervention versus control
Among whites, risk at baseline was similar among men in the PCC and UC arms (P = 0.22). At six months, the mean number of UAI episodes decreased to 2.1 among men receiving PCC and to 4.6 among men in the UC group. At 12 months, the mean number of episodes of UAI decreased to 1.9 among PCC participants and to 2.2 among UC. Although the treatment effect was significant at six months (P = 0.045), overall the treatment effect was not significant (P = 0.32).
These findings were similar to those reported in the original study for the entire sample, at baseline the mean number of episodes of UAI in the PCC group was 4.2 and in the UC group was 4.8 (P = 0.56). At six months UAI decreased to a mean of 1.9 episodes of UAI in the PCC arm while there was little change in the UC group (P = 0.003). At 12 months the risk reduction in the PCC group persisted (mean of 1.9 episodes of UAI) while the UC group had a significant decline in risk (mean of 2.2 episodes of UAI), resulting in similar levels across groups (P = 0.81).
Compared to whites in the study, MOC reported similar satisfaction with the quality of service they received. Among all MOC receiving PCC, 64% reported that the quality of service they received was “excellent” compared to 71% of white PCC participants (P = 0.47). The proportion of MOC who received PCC compared to white PCC participants who rated their counselor’s competence as “high” was 58% versus 59%, respectively, (P = 0.92). Eighty-two percent of the MOC who received PCC and 77% of the white participants rated their overall satisfaction as “very satisfied” (P = 0.60). In addition, among MOC only, PCC participants compared to UC participants reported similar satisfaction with the quality of services received: 64% of PCC participants ranked the quality of service received as “excellent” compared to 52% of UC participants (P = 0.328). The proportion of MOC who received PCC compared to UC participants who rated their counselor’s competence as “high” was 58% versus 41%, respectively, (P = 0.141). Eighty-two percent of the MOC PCC participants and 71% of UC participants rated their overall satisfaction as “very satisfied” (P = 0.445). Among whites only, PCC participants compared to UC participants expressed significantly higher satisfaction with the following indicators: 71% of white PCC participants reported “excellent” quality of service compared to 55% of white UC participants (P = 0.047); 59% of PCC participants compared to 39% of UC participants rated their counselor’s competence as “high” (P = 0.012), and 77% of PCC participants and 53% of UC participants rated their overall satisfaction as “very satisfied” (P = 0.001).