J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 February 2; 103(3): 250–263.
© The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.
Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes: A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies
Affiliations of authors: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Sciences, Rockville, MD (XRY, SC, JF, LBr, MES, MG-C); Section of Epidemiology and Genetics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey, UK (MG-C); Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany (JC-C, RH, AV); Department of Health Sciences Research (ELG, FJC, JEO, VC, ZF, MKo, CV); Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (FJC, XW), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (HN, THe), Department of Clinical Genetics (KA), Department of Pathology (PHe), and Department of Oncology (CB), Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group (RLM), Human Cancer Genetic Group (JB), Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain; Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (MGa); Amsterdam Breast Cancer Study, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (MKS, AB, LJVV, FEvL); Institute for Cancer Studies, Department of Oncology (AC, DC,HEC), Academic Unit of Pathology (SCC), Academic Unit of Surgical Oncology, Department of Oncology (SPB, MWRR), University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, UK; Division of Hematology and Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (PAF); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, (MWB, SBW, SMJ, CRL), Institute of Pathology (AHa, DLW), University Breast Center Franconia, University Breast Center, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany; The Queensland Institute of Medical Research Post Office, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia (ABS, HH, GC-T); Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK (FB, KD, MKH, DE, PP, MG-C); Department of Medical Biometrics and Epidemiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany (DF-J, JH); Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany (PS); Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Cancer Center and M. Sklodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland (JLi); Department of Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (BP); Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden (PHa, KC, KH, HD); Human Genetics, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore (JLi); Ontario Cancer Genetics Network (OCGN), Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON, Canada (ILA, GG, NW); Departments of Molecular Genetics and Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada (ILA); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Prosserman Centre for Health Research, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada (JAK); Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael’s Hospital, and Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (AMM), Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, and Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (FPOM), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Northern California Cancer Center, Fremont, CA (EMJ); Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine and Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, CA (EMJ); Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia (LB, DRE, GGG, GS); Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic, and Analytic Epidemiology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia (LBa, DRE, GGG, GS, GSD, CA, JLH); The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia (CAM); Vesalius Research Center, KU Leuven and VIB, Leuven, Belgium (DL); Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium (TV, CW, RP, AS, PN, HW); Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (TD, AA, T-WP-S, PH), Department of Radiation Oncology (MB, AM, JHK), Hanover Medical School, Hanover, Germany (TD, MBr, AMe, JHK, AA, T-WP-S, PHi); Servicio Cirugía General (JIAP), Servicio de Anatomía Patológica (PMR), Hospital Monte Naranco, Oviedo, Spain Servicio de Oncología Médica, Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain (PZ); CIBERER, Madrid, Spain (JB); Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn gGmbH, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn, Germany (Y-DK); Institute of Pathology, Medical Faculty of the University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany (H-PF); Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany (UH); Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance (IPA), Bochum, Germany (BP, TBr ); Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany (CJ, HB); University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany (CJ, HB); University of Southampton School of Medicine, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southampton (DME, WJT, SMG); Guy’s, King’s, St Thomas’ Cancer Centre, Guy’s Hospital, London, UK (EJS); Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (EJS, IPT, AJo, NMc); Clinical Science Institute, University College Hospital, Galway, Ireland (MKe, NMc, NMi); Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Irvine (HA-C, AZ); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (C-YS, C-NH, P-EW, S-LY); Graduate Institute of Environmental Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (C-YS); Department of Surgery (J-CY), Department of Radiology (G-CH), Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (J-CY, G-CH); Department of Surgery, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan (S-TC); Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (CAH, BEH); Epidemiology Program, Cancer Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (LLM, LNK); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery (AL), Department of Oncology and Pathology (SMa), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; International Hereditary Cancer Centre, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland (AJa, JLu, THu, TBy, BG, JG); Department of Medical Oncology Rotterdam Family Cancer Clinic, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (MJH, AHo, AMWvdO, AJa, MKr, MMAT-L, MC); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany (SW-G); University of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland (KP, AJ-V, KM, MGr, PHi, RW); Department of Pathology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital; Biocenter Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland (AMa, V-MK, JK, YS, RS); Department of Oncology, Vaasa Central Hospital, Vaasa, Finland (VK); Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland (PA); The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Australia (kConFab); Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Department of Breast Surgery, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark (SEB, DDØ, DK-K, HF, BGN); Unit of Medical Genetics, Department of Preventive and Predictive Medicine (SMa), Unit of Genetic Susceptibility to Cancer, Department of Experimental Oncology and Molecular Medicine (PR), Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori (INT), Milan, Italy; Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia (IEO), Milan, Italy (MBa); Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (SEH, DJH, RT); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (SEH, DJH, RT); Molecular Epidemiology Unit, National Cancer Institute, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand (SS); International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France (PB, JM, FO, VG); Department of Human Genetics (PD), Department of Pathology (PD), Department of Clinical Genetics (PEAH), Department of Surgical Oncology (RAEMT), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Medical Oncology, Rotterdam Family Cancer Clinic, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (CS); The Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (FH, HT, LDS, MCS)
Received May 13, 2010; Revised November 22, 2010; Accepted November 23, 2010.
This study was supported in part by the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement number 223175 (HEALTH-F2-2009-223175). The individual Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) studies were funded by the following sources: Australian Breast Cancer Family Study (ABCFS) and Ontario Familial Breast Cancer Registry (OBCFR): National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) under RFA CA-06-503 and through cooperative agreements with members of the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR) and Principal Investigators, including Cancer Care Ontario (U01 CA69467), Northern California Cancer Center (U01 CA69417), and University of Melbourne (U01 CA69638).
Amsterdam Breast Cancer Study (ABCS): The Dutch Cancer Society (NKI 2001-2423; 2007-3839) and the Dutch National Genomics Initiative.
Breast Cancer in Galway Genetic Study (BIGGS): E.J.S. is funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre award to Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust in partnership with King’s College London.
Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS): The Chief Physician Johan Boserup and Lise Boserup Fund, the Danish Medical Research Council, and Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev Hospital.
Spanish National Cancer Centre Breast Cancer Study (CNIO-BCS): The Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Cáncer and grants from the Asociación Española Contra Cáncer and the Fondo de Investigación Sanitario (PI081120 to J.B. and PI081583 to R.L.M.).
Gene Environment Interaction and Breast Cancer in Germany (GENICA): Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) Germany (01KW9975/5, 01KW9976/8, 01KW9977/0, and 01KW0114), the Robert Bosch Foundation of Medical Research, Stuttgart, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance (IPA), Bochum, as well as the Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn gGmbH, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn, Germany.
Genetic Epidemiology Study of Breast Cancer by Age 50 (GESBC): Deutsche Krebshilfe (70492) and the state of Baden-Württemberg through the Medical Faculty of the University of Ulm (P.685).
Helsinki Breast Cancer Study (HEBCS): The Helsinki University Central Hospital Research Fund, Academy of Finland (110663), the Finnish Cancer Society, and the Sigrid Juselius Foundation.
Leuven Multidisciplinary Breast Centre (LMBC): European Union Framework Programme 6 Project LSHC-CT-2003-503297 (the Cancerdegradome) and by the ‘Stichting tegen Kanker’ (232-2008).
Karolinska Breast Cancer Study (KARBAC): The Swedish Cancer Society, the Gustav V Jubilee Foundation, the Cancer Society in Stockholm, and the Bert von Kantzow Foundation.
Kuopio Breast Cancer Project (KBCP): The Kuopio University Central EVO Research Fund, Academy of Finland, the Finnish Cancer Society, the University of Kuopio and EVO research funding of Vaasa Hospital District.
Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab): NHMRC (145684, 288704 and 454508), the National Breast Cancer Foundation, the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), the Queensland Cancer Fund, the Cancer Councils of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia, and the Cancer Foundation of Western Australia. A.B.S. is supported by an NHMRC Senior Research Fellowship, and G.C.-T. by an NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellowship.
Mammary Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation (MARIE): Deutsche Krebshilfe e.V. (70-2892-BR I), the Hamburg Cancer Society, and the German Cancer Research Center.
Mayo Clinic Breast Cancer Study (MCBCS): NIH (CA122340), NIH recovery act (ARRA CA122340Z), and an NCI-sponsored Specialized Program Of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Breast Cancer to the Mayo Clinic (CA116201).
Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS): The Cancer Council Victoria, VicHealth, and NHMRC (209057, 251533, 396414, 504711).
Multiethnic Cohort (MEC): NIH (R01-CA63464 and R37-CA54281).
Nurses Health Study (NHS): NIH (CA87969).
Oulu Breast Cancer Study (OBCS): Finnish Cancer Foundation, the Sigrid Juselius Foundation, the Academy of Finland, the University of Finland, and Oulu University Hospital.
Leiden University Medical Centre Breast Cancer Study (ORIGO): The Dutch Cancer Society.
Polish Breast Cancer Study (PBCS): Intramural Research Program of US NIH, NCI, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG).
Prospective Study of Outcomes in Sporadic Versus Hereditary Breast Cancer (POSH): Wessex Cancer Trust, Cancer Research UK and the National Cancer Research Network.
Rotterdam Breast Cancer Study (RBCS): The Dutch Cancer Society (DDHK 2004-3124).
Sheffield Breast Cancer Study (SBCS): The Breast Cancer Campaign (2004Nov 49) and Yorkshire Cancer Research.
Study of Epidemiology and Risk factors in Cancer Heredity (SEARCH): Cancer Research UK.
IHCC-Szczecin Breast Cancer Study (SZBCS): Polish Ministry of Science (PBZ-KBN-122/PO5/2004).
Taiwanese Breast Cancer Study (TWBCS): The Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, National Sciences Council and Taiwan Biobank.
UCI Breast Cancer Study (UCIBCS): The NIH, NCI (CA-58860) and the Lon V Smith Foundation (LVS-39420).