Weighted frequencies and means for sociodemographic characteristics are shown in . A total of 5344 HINTS respondents had valid responses for ethnicity; among this subpopulation, 90.8% self-identified as non-Hispanic (n = 4850) and 9.2% as Hispanic (n = 494). Of the Hispanic respondents, 46.2% completed the survey in English (n = 228; hereafter referred to as English-speaking Hispanic respondents), whereas 53.8% of Hispanic respondents completed the survey in Spanish (n = 266; hereafter referred to as Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents).
Sociodemographic Characteristics by Language Spoken and Ethnicity
Compared to non-Hispanics respondents (47.1%), a significantly higher percentage of English-speaking Hispanic respondents (54.9%) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (52.0%) were male. Compared to non-Hispanic respondents (58.3%), a significantly higher percentage of English-speaking Hispanic respondents (79.4%) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (81.9%) were under 50 years of age. A significantly greater proportion of Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (61.9%) reported incomes of less than $25,000 per year compared to 26.0% of English-speaking Hispanic respondents and 20.8% of non-Hispanic respondents. Significant differences in level of educational attainment were also found between the 3 groups: Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (54.2%) were significantly more likely to have less than a high school education compared to English-speaking Hispanic respondents (19.8%) and non-Hispanics (10.3%). Significant differences also were found in the proportion of each group that reported that they were born in the United States. Over 90% of the Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents were born outside of the United States. A significantly greater proportion (91.4%) of English-speaking Hispanic respondents reported feeling comfortable speaking English compared to 21.2% of Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents and 85.7% of non-Hispanic respondents. Mean number of years residing in the United States was significantly different across groups: non-Hispanics reported residing in the United States for 45.3 years compared to 34.3 years for English-speaking Hispanic respondents and 14.4 years for Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents.
Related to cancer information seeking, the data reveal non-Hispanics are more likely to seek information (53.2%) compared to both English-speaking Hispanics (37.1%) and Spanish-speaking Hispanics (16.7%). Bivariate associations of cancer information-seeking experiences among those who have sought cancer information, by language spoken and ethnicity, are summarized in . Results indicate that almost 70% of Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents were significantly more likely to agree that their last search for cancer information took a lot of effort compared to 43.3% of English-speaking Hispanic respondents and 35.6% of non-Hispanic respondents. Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (54.7%) were also significantly more likely to agree that the information they found was hard to understand compared to the other 2 groups (24.8% of English-speaking Hispanics and 22.2% of non-Hispanics). Although Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more likely than English-speaking Hispanics and non-Hispanics to agree that they found their last search frustrating, the differences between the 3 groups was not statistically significant nor was the difference in the proportion who agreed that they were concerned about the quality of the information they found. Given the low number of Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents who indicated they had searched for cancer information on the Internet, statistical comparisons between the 3 groups on this variable are unreliable and therefore should be interpreted cautiously.
Information-Seeking Experiences by Language Spoken and Ethnicity
To determine which variables were independently associated with each of the specific cancer information-seeking experiences and behaviors, 4 logistic regression models were conducted (). Independent variables for all models included gender, age, education, income, language used in the interview, and number of years in the United States.
Logistic Regression of Sociodemographic Characteristics onto Cancer Information Experiences*
The overall model for sought cancer information was significant (F14 = 14.93, P < .0001). Compared to non-Hispanics, English-speaking Hispanics (odds ratio [OR] = 0.59, confidence interval [CI] = 0.38–0.92) and Spanish-speaking Hispanics (OR = 0.25, CI = 0.15–0.43) were significantly less likely to have sought cancer information. Compared to respondents with less than a high school education, respondents who graduated from high school or had some college education (OR = 2.10, CI = 1.53–2.89) and respondents who graduated from college (OR = 3.38, CI = 2.31–4.95) were significantly more likely to have searched for cancer information. Females (OR = 1.79, CI = 1.46–2.20) were significantly more likely to have searched for cancer information than males.
The model for confidence in obtaining cancer information was also significant (F14 = 21.54, P < .0001). Compared to non-Hispanics, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were less likely to feel confident they could obtain cancer information (OR = 0.35, CI = 0.22–0.57). Compared to respondents earning less than $25,000 per year, respondents earning $50,000 to $75,000 per year (OR = 1.40; CI = 1.01–1.94) and respondents earning greater than $75,000 per year (OR = 1.63, CI = 1.21–2.19) were more confident they could obtain cancer information. Finally, compared to younger respondents (18–34 years of age), respondents 35 to 49 years of age (OR = 0.63, CI = 0.47–0.86) expressed lower confidence in obtaining cancer information.
The model examining information-seeking effort (It took a lot of effort …) was significant (F14 = 9.48, P < .0001). Compared to respondents who were 18 to 34 years of age, those 50 to 64 (OR = 2.80, CI = 1.57–4.97), those 65 to 74 (OR = 3.85, CI = 1.61–9.23), and those 75 and older (OR = 6.49, CI = 2.38–17.69) were significantly more likely to report that their search took a lot of effort. Compared to respondents with less than a high school education, those who were college graduates (OR = 0.48, CI = 0.25–0.91) were less likely to report that their search took a lot of effort. There were no significant differences between non-Hispanics, English-speaking Hispanics, or Spanish-speaking Hispanics on reported information-seeking effort.
Finally, the model for difficulty in understanding information (information … was hard to understand) was significant (F14 = 37.90, P < .0001). Compared to respondents 18 to 34 years of age, all other age groups were significantly more likely to indicate that the information was hard to understand: 35- to 49-year-olds (OR = 2.03, CI = 1.20–3.46); 50- to 64-year-olds (OR = 3.31, CI = 1.48–7.39); 65- to 74-year-olds (OR = 3.17, CI = 1.03–9.73); and 75 years of age and older (OR = 3.97, CI = 1.03–15.36). Compared to respondents earning $25,000 or less, respondents earning $50,000 to 75,000 per year (OR = 0.63, CI = 0.42–0.93) and respondents earning $75,000 or more (OR = 0.54, CI = 0.34–0.86) were significantly less likely to report that information was hard to understand.