Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
Science. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 May 12.
Published in final edited form as:
PMCID: PMC3093307

A Novel miRNA Processing Pathway Independent of Dicer Requires Argonaute2 Catalytic Activity


Dicer is a central enzyme in microRNA (miRNA) processing. We identified a Dicer-independent miRNA biogenesis pathway that uses Argonaute2 (Ago2) slicer catalytic activity. In contrast to other miRNAs, miR-451 levels were refractory to dicer loss of function but were reduced in MZago2 (maternal-zygotic) mutants. We found that pre-miR-451 processing requires Ago2 catalytic activity in vivo. MZago2 mutants showed delayed erythropoiesis that could be rescued by wild-type Ago2 or miR-451-duplex but not by catalytically dead Ago2. Changing the secondary structure of Dicer-dependent miRNAs to mimic that of pre-miR-451 restored miRNA function and rescued developmental defects in MZdicer mutants, indicating that the pre-miRNA secondary structure determines the processing pathway in vivo. We propose that Ago2-mediated cleavage of pre-miRNAs, followed by uridylation and trimming, generates functional miRNAs independently of Dicer.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~22-nucleotide (nt) small RNAs that regulate dead-enylation, translation, and decay of their target mRNAs (1, 2). In animals, most miRNAs are processed from a primary transcript (termed pri-miRNA) by two ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes, Drosha and Dicer. Recent studies have identified several miRNA classes that bypass Drosha-mediated processing, namely miRtrons, tRNAZ, and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) (26). In contrast to Drosha, Dicer has been viewed as a central processing enzyme in the maturation of small RNAs (2). But are there functional miRNAs that bypass Dicer? To identify pathways that might process miRNAs in a Dicer-independent manner, we sequenced small RNAs (19 to 36 nt) in wild-type and maternal-zygotic dicer mutants (MZdicer)(7). We analyzed 48-hour-old embryos in two wild-type replicates and two dicer mutant alleles (8), dicerhu715 and dicerhu896 (fig. S1). Of the ~2 million reads per sample, 69 to 82% mapped to known 5′- or 3′-derived miRNAs in the wild type, whereas 4 to 9% mapped to miRNAs in the MZdicer mutants (fig. S2). Several miRNAs appeared refractory to dicer loss of function, notably miR-451-5′, miR-2190-5′, miR-2190-3′, and miR-735-5′ (Fig. 1A and figs. S3 and S4). On the basis of read frequency, reproducibility, and evolutionary conservation, we focused subsequent analysis on miR-451. miR-451 differs from other “canonical” miRNAs for several reasons: (i) It is encoded in a conserved 42-nt hairpin (fig. S5) with a 17-nt stem, whereas Dicer requires a >19-nt stem for efficient processing (9); (ii) miR-451 has a defined 5′ end but a variable 3′ end that extends over the loop region and ranges between 20 and 30 nt (Fig. 1, C and D); and (iii) reads stopped at nucleotide 30, and longer reads carried one to five nontemplated uridines, with nucleotide 31 mostly being a non-templated U (Fig. 1D). The final templated base pairs with nucleotide 10 of the mature miRNA (Fig. 1C and fig. S1), a site where slicer activity cleaves the passenger strand in siRNAs (1012). These observations lead us to hypothesize that Ago2 slicer activity could participate in miRNA maturation (fig. S1).

Fig. 1
MicroRNA analysis in wild type (wt) and in MZdicer and MZago2 mutants. (A and B) Normalized reads from wild type versus MZdicer (A) or MZago2 (B) libraries for all annotated zebrafish miRNAs. Some miRNAs are shown as a reference for enhanced and reduced ...

To determine whether Ago2 participates in miRNA maturation, we generated a deletion in the Piwi domain of the ago2 gene (ago2Δ90) with the use of zinc finger nucleases (1315) (Fig. 1E and fig. S1). Because argonaute genes are maternally expressed (fig. S6), we generated maternal-zygotic ago2 mutants (MZago2). Indeed, slicer cleavage of an mRNA with perfectly complementary targets to miR-1 was severely reduced in MZago2 but not Zago2 relative to wild-type embryos (Fig. 1F and fig. S1).

To investigate the role of Ago2 in miRNA processing, we sequenced small RNAs (19 to 36 nt) from 48-hour-old MZago2 mutant embryos. Comparing the normalized read frequency for each 5′- and 3′-mature miRNA between wild-type and MZago2 mutants revealed a reduction in the number of reads that mapped to miR-451 (Fig. 1, B and D). In contrast, other miRNAs remained largely unchanged. miR-451 and miR-144 are coexpressed from a common primary transcript in the erythroid lineage (16, 17) (Fig. 1C). Whereas miR-451 accumulated in the absence of Dicer (factor of ~3 increase), miR-144 reads were reduced by a factor of >200 in MZdicer mutants (18) (Fig. 1A). Conversely, ago2 loss of function did not affect the read frequency of miR-144 (Fig. 1B) but did reduce miR-451 levels by a factor of >8000. Taken together, these results indicate that Ago2 regulates miR-451 levels posttranscriptionally by affecting either its processing or stability.

Recent studies suggest that Ago2 binds pre-miRNAs and miRNA:miRNA* duplexes (1922), where miRNA* denotes the complementary strand. Ago2 interacted with radiolabeled synthetic pre-miR-451 in vitro (fig. S7). Coexpression of Flag-mouse-Ago2 (mAgo2) with pre-miR-451 or a mutant pre-miR-451mm10-11 (with two mismatches in the predicted slicer cleavage site) followed by Ago2 immunoprecipitation showed that Ago2 bound to both mature miR-451 and pre-miR-451mm10-11 (Fig. 2A). Incubation of human Ago2 (hAgo2) with pre-miR-451 but not pre-miR-430 resulted in a sharp 30-nt band corresponding with the predicted slicer cleavage product of miR-451 (Fig. 2B). Conversely, recombinant Dicer bound both pre-miRNAs (fig. S7) but could only process pre-miR-430 (Fig. 2B). To investigate whether Ago2 processes miR-451, we injected pre-miRNAs into one-cell-stage embryos. Synthetic and endogenous pre-miR-451 hairpins were processed into ~30-nt intermediates and a ~22- to 26-nt mature miR-451 in wild-type and MZdicer mutant but not in MZago2 mutant embryos (Fig. 2, D and F). In contrast, a canonical mature miR-430 was processed in both wild-type and MZago2 mutant embryos but not in MZdicer (Fig. 2F). On the basis of the sequencing results, we hypothesized that Ago2-processed hairpin might undergo nucleolytic trimming at the 3′ end (Fig. 1D). We observed that Ago2 protected the ~30-nt slicer-cleaved intermediate from RNase I in vitro, resulting in a ~20- to 26-nt 3′-end trimmed product (Fig. 2C), similar to the mature miRNAs observed in vivo (Fig. 2, D to F). Ago2 slicer activity depends on its catalytic triad (DDH) and the pairing between the guide and the target mRNA (2325). Expressing wild-type but not catalytically dead (D669A) mAgo2 in MZago2 mutants rescued pre-miR-451 processing in vivo (Fig. 2E). Furthermore, a hairpin with mismatches that disrupt pairing in the predicted slicer cleavage was bound by Ago2 (fig. S7) but was inefficiently processed into mature miR-451 (Fig. 2E). These results indicate that Ago2 binds and cleaves pre-miR-451 in a process that requires the slicer catalytic activity and is independent of Dicer.

Fig. 2
Ago2 binds and processes pre-miR-451. (A) Immunoprecipitation of FLAG-mAgo2 in wild-type and mutant embryos injected with pre-miR-451 followed by Northern blot analysis to detect bound miR-451. Input (I), supernatant (S), and immunoprecipitate (IP) are ...

MZago2 mutant embryos displayed normal morphogenesis during gastrulation, brain development, and heart development (fig. S8). Ago2 is maternally expressed, and later in development it acquires tissue-specific expression in the brain and intermediate cell mass (ICM) (Fig. 3C and fig. S6). The ICM corresponds to the hematopoietic precursors and overlaps with the expression domain of miR-451 (16), which plays an important role in erythrocyte maturation in zebrafish (16, 17). Consistent with the Ago2-dependent processing of miR-451, MZago2 but not MZdicer mutants showed a reduction in the number of hemoglobinized erythrocytes (Fig. 3, A and B, and fig. S8). In zebrafish, erythrocyte maturation can be monitored by changes in erythrocyte morphology and reduced nuclear/cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio (17, 26, 27). Erythrocyte maturation was delayed in MZago2 mutants, as manifested by a significant increase in N:C ratio at 60 hours post-fertilization (hpf) (P < 10−15) (Fig. 3, D and E). Providing back wild-type mAgo2 or mature miR-451-duplex but not catalytically dead mAgo2D669A rescued erythrocyte maturation in MZago2 mutants (Fig. 3, D and E). Thus, Ago2 catalytic function plays an important role during erythrocyte maturation.

Fig. 3
MZago2 mutants show reduced erythropoiesis. (A) Expression of hemoglobin (brown) visualized by the oxidation of o-dianisidine (o-das) at 48 hpf in the ducts of Cuvier. Hemoglobinized cells accumulate in wild type but are reduced in MZago2 mutants [group ...

Whereas miR-451 is a 42-nt miRNA hairpin, canonical vertebrate miRNAs are ~60 nt, and unlike most miRNAs, mature miR-451 extends into the loop of the hairpin where it overlaps with the miRNA* (Fig. 4A and fig. S5). We hypothesized that selection of the processing pathway may be determined by structural differences or by specific sequence motifs. To distinguish between these two scenarios, we modified the sequence of pre-miR-451 to encode a Dicer-dependent miRNA (miR-430c or miR-1) mimicking pre-miR-451 structure and length (pre-miRNAago2-hairpin)(Fig. 4A and fig. S10). miR-430c is a member of a zygotically expressed miRNA family that regulates maternal mRNA clearance, gastrulation, and brain morphogenesis (7, 28). These processes are disrupted in MZdicer mutants but can be rescued by injection of a Dicer-independent miR-430-duplex (7, 28). Three lines of evidence indicate that pre-miR-430ago2-hairpin is processed and functional independently of Dicer: (i) Synthetic pre-miRNAago2-hairpin was processed into a ~23-nt mature miRNA in vivo (Fig. 4C and fig. S10) and processed by recombinant hAgo2 but not hDicer in vitro (Fig. 4D); (ii) injection of miR-430cago2-hairpin into MZdicer embryos repressed translation of a green fluorescent protein miR-430 reporter (GFP-miR-430) relative to a dsRed control (Fig. 4B); and (iii) injection of pre-miR-430cago2-hairpin into MZdicer mutants rescued the gastrulation and brain morphogenesis defects similarly to a miR-430-duplex (Fig. 4E). In contrast, equimolar levels of the annotated Dicer-dependent pre-miR-430 did not rescue the MZdicer phenotype (Fig. 4E). A second engineered miRNA (miR-1ago2-hairpin) was also processed independently of Dicer and down-regulated a GFP-miR-1 reporter in vivo (fig. S10). These results support a model in which the secondary structure of the hairpin determines whether a pre-miRNA is processed by Ago2 to form a physiologically functional Dicer-independent miRNA.

Fig. 4
A Dicer-independent miRNA. (A) Zebrafish pre-miRNAs and duplexes as indicated. pre-miR-430ago2-hairpin is a miR-430c hairpin that has been mutated and shortened to form a 42-nt hairpin mimicking pre-miR-451 (ago2-hairpin). (B) GFP-reporter mRNA (green) ...

Our study defines a Dicer-independent pathway for miRNA processing that is dependent on Ago2 catalytic activity. We propose a model whereby Ago2 binds the pre-miRNA and cleaves the paired miRNA* passenger strand 10 nucleotides away from the 5′ end of the Ago2-bound miRNA guide strand (18). On the basis of our small RNA sequencing, this intermediate would undergo polyuridylation and nuclease-mediated removal of uridines and templated nucleotides not protected by Ago2 to generate the mature miRNA (fig. S11). Previous studies have shown that the terminal uridylyl transferase (TUT4) is recruited by lin-28 to uridylate pre-let7 (29), which blocks miRNA maturation and accelerates its degradation. Although we cannot exclude the possibility that miR-451–uridylated intermediates are targeted for complete degradation, our model favors a scenario where uridylated Ago2-cleaved pre-miRNAs are trimmed by a cellular nuclease to generate mature miRNA sequences protected by Ago2.

Ago2 has been reported to cleave siRNAs and pre-miRNAs (21). Ago2-cleaved precursors (ac-pre-miRNAs) can serve as Dicer substrates, but their physiological functions remain unclear (21). Here, we show that Ago2 cleavage is necessary for the generation of a functional miRNA (Figs. (Figs.1,1, ,2,2, and and4).The4).The identification of a miRNA-processing pathway that bypasses Dicer function might have wide implications for the processing of canonical miRNAs. Our study provides a biological context in which Ago2 slicer activity is needed to process a blood-specific miRNA, miR-451 (30). Although it is likely that Ago2 has additional roles in the cell by cleaving perfectly complementary targets (1), the strong conservation of the sequence and secondary structure of miR-451 across vertebrates suggests that constraints are in place to maintain this Ago2-mediated miRNA processing pathway through evolution (18).

Supplementary Material



31. We thank J. Doudna, D. O’Carroll, L. Zon, S. Lacadie, G. Lieschke, D. Krausse, and S. Halene for reagents and protocols; A. Enright, C. Abreu-Goodger, and J. Brennecke for initial small RNA analysis; and B. Schachter, C. Takacs, V. Greco, and D. Cazalla for discussions and manuscript editing. Supported by Fundación Ramón Areces (D.C.), a Human Frontier Science Program fellowship (H.X.), NIH grants R01GM081602-03/03S1 (A.J.G.) and R01HL093766 (N.D.L. and S.A.W.), the Yale Scholar program, and the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences (A.J.G.). Contributions: D.C. and A.J.G. designed and performed experiments; H.X. performed computational analysis; D.C. and D.W.T. performed in vitro assays; H.P. performed in situ hybridizations; Y.M., G.J.H., and S.C. helped with initial small RNA library sequencing and discussion; E.M. provided recombinant Ago2; S.M. provided small RNA sequencing; S.A.W. and N.L. designed the zinc finger nucleases; and A.J.G. wrote the manuscript. Sequencing data are deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE21503).


Supporting Online Material Materials and Methods Figs. S1 to S11 References

References and Notes

1. Bartel DP. Cell. 2009;136:215. [PubMed]
2. Carthew RW, Sontheimer EJ. Cell. 2009;136:642. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
3. Babiarz JE, Ruby JG, Wang Y, Bartel DP, Blelloch R. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2773. [PubMed]
4. Berezikov E, Chung WJ, Willis J, Cuppen E, Lai EC. Mol. Cell. 2007;28:328. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
5. Okamura K, Hagen JW, Duan H, Tyler DM, Lai EC. Cell. 2007;130:89. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
6. Ruby JG, Jan CH, Bartel DP. Nature. 2007;448:83. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
7. Giraldez AJ, et al. Science. 2005;308:833. [PubMed]
8. Wienholds E, Koudijs MJ, van Eeden FJ, Cuppen E, Plasterk RH. Nat. Genet. 2003;35:217. [PubMed]
9. Siolas D, et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 2004;23:227. [PubMed]
10. Matranga C, Tomari Y, Shin C, Bartel DP, Zamore PD. Cell. 2005;123:607. [PubMed]
11. Martinez J, Patkaniowska A, Urlaub H, Lührmann R, Tuschl T. Cell. 2002;110:563. [PubMed]
12. Czech B, et al. Mol. Cell. 2009;36:445. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
13. Doyon Y, et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 2008;26:702. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
14. Maeder ML, et al. Mol. Cell. 2008;31:294. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
15. Meng X, Noyes MB, Zhu LJ, Lawson ND, Wolfe SA. Nat. Biotechnol. 2008;26:695. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
16. Dore LC, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008;105:3333. [PubMed]
17. Pase L, et al. Blood. 2009;113:1794. [PubMed]
18. See supporting material on Science Online.
19. Hammond SM, Boettcher S, Caudy AA, Kobayashi R, Hannon GJ. Science. 2001;293:1146. [PubMed]
20. Wang B, et al. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2009;16:1259. [PubMed]
21. Diederichs S, Haber DA. Cell. 2007;131:1097. [PubMed]
22. Tan GS, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:7533. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
23. Liu J, et al. Science. 2004;305:1437. [PubMed]
24. Song JJ, Smith SK, Hannon GJ, Joshua-Tor L. Science. 2004;305:1434. [PubMed]
25. Tolia NH, Joshua-Tor L. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2007;3:36. [PubMed]
26. Weinstein BM, et al. Development. 1996;123:303. [PubMed]
27. Qian F, et al. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e132. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
28. Giraldez AJ, et al. Science. 2006;312:75. [PubMed]
29. Kai ZS, Pasquinelli AE. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2010;17:5. [PubMed]
30. Cheloufi S, Dos Santos CO, Chong MMW, Hannon GJ. Nature. 2010 10.1038/nature09092.